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Hull, C. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, published online May 28, 2014.
Hull, C. Circulation, Dec 24/31, 2013.
Grabowski, G. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, February 2013.
Stop the Clot: "Athletes and Blood Clots," "Is it true that birth control pills cause blood clots?" "Blood Clot FAQs - Cancer and Blood Clots."
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: "What Causes Deep Vein Thrombosis?" "How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels?"
CDC: "Venous Thromboembolism (Blood Clots)."
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Chung, W. Thrombosis Research, publishing online Jan 7, 2015.
Khademvatani, K. International Journal of General Medicine, published online June 19, 2014.
NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: "Vitamin D."
UpToDate: "Transdermal contraceptive patch," "Overview of the causes of venous thrombosis."
Harvard Health Publications: "FDA warns about blood clot risk with testosterone products."
Abdollahi, M. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, March 2003.
James, A. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, March 2009.
Dresang, L. American Family Physician, June 15, 2008.
Zoller, B. Pediatrics, August 2014.
Pomp, E. American Journal of Hematology, February 2008.
Reviewed by Carmelita Swiner, MD on May 29, 2020
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