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IQWiG on PubMed: "What are blood clots and what causes them?"
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: "Deep Vein Thrombosis- What Is," "Pulmonary Embolism- What Is," "Heart Attack."
CDC: "Venous Thromboembolism (Blood Clots): Basics," "Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)."
Vascular Center of Wichita Falls: "Blood Clots (Arterial & Venous)."
American Society of Hematology: "For Patients: Blood Clots."
Journal of Vascular Surgery: "A comprehensive review of Paget-Schroetter syndrome."
Cardiovascular Diagnosis & Therapy: "Paget-Schroetter syndrome: treatment of venous thrombosis and outcomes."
American Heart Association: "Heart Attack Symptoms in Women."
UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center: "Obstruction of the Veins to the Heart (Superior Vena Cava Syndrome)."
American College of Cardiology: "Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis."
Medscape: "Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis," "Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Treatment & Management," "Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO)."
Harvard Health Publishing: "Thrombotic Stroke."
UpToDate: "Patient education: Stroke symptoms and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)," "Cerebral venous thrombosis: Etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis," "May-Thurner syndrome," "Acute portal vein thrombosis in adults: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management."
Stroke: "Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis."
Johns Hopkins Medicine: "Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST)."
Merck Manual, Consumer Version: "Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis,""Portal Vein Thrombosis," "Budd-Chiari Syndrome," "Renal Vein Thrombosis."
Cleveland Clinic: "Retinal Vein Occlusion," "May-Thurner Syndrome."
University of Leicester, The Virtual Autopsy: "Case 5: The Portal Circulation."
Vascular Medicine: "Portal vein thrombosis: When to treat and how?"
National Organization for Rare Disorders: "Budd Chiari Syndrome."
Sumorok, N. "Renal Vein Thrombosis," Nephrology Grand Rounds, NYU Langone Health, Oct. 18, 2011.
Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH on April 25, 2018
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