Photophobia literally means "fear of light." If you have photophobia, you're not actually afraid of light, but you are very sensitive to it. The sun or bright indoor light can be uncomfortable, even painful.
Photophobia is linked to the connection between cells in your eyes that detect light and a nerve that goes to your head.
Migraines are the most common cause of light sensitivity. Up to 80% of people who get them have photophobia along with their headaches. Many of those people are light sensitive even when they don't have a headache.
A few brain conditions can cause photophobia, including:
- Meningitis (swelling of the protective coverings of your brain and spinal cord)
- Serious brain injury
- Supranuclear palsy (a brain disorder that causes problems with balance, walking, and eye movement)
- Tumors in your pituitary gland
Some eye diseases cause this symptom, including:
- Dry eye
- Uveitis (swelling of the inside of your eye)
- Keratitis (swelling of your cornea, the clear layer that covers the colored part of your eye)
- Iritis (swelling of the colored ring around your pupil)
- Cataracts (cloudy coverings over the lenses of your eyes)
- Corneal abrasion (a scratch on your cornea)
- Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear tissue that sits over the white part of your eye)
- Damage to your retina, the light-sensitive layer in the back of your eye
- Blepharospasm (a condition that makes your eyelids close uncontrollably)
Photophobia may also affect some people who have these mental health conditions:
- Agoraphobia (a fear of being in public places)
- Bipolar disorder
- Panic disorder
Certain wavelengths of light -- like the blue light your computer and smartphone give off -- cause the most sensitivity.
Some medicines can also cause photophobia, including:
If you think you have photophobia, see your eye doctor. They'll ask about your symptoms and any medical conditions you have. Then they'll check the health of your eyes and possibly your brain.
Tests your doctor might use include:
- Slit-lamp eye exam. They'll use a special microscope with a light to examine your eyes.
- MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging.This uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make detailed pictures of your eyes.
- Exam of the tear film. This checks the amount of tears you make to see if you have dry eyes.
The best way to ease photophobia is to treat the condition or stop taking the medicine that's causing it.
If you're still affected by it, tinted glasses may help. Some people have found relief from rose-colored lenses called FL-41.
But tinted lenses aren't for everyone. They can make some people even more sensitive to light, so talk with your doctor about what's best for you.