Medically Reviewed by Whitney Seltman, OD on September 04, 2022
What's Your Eye-Q?

What's Your Eye-Q?


Kids learn through their eyes. Healthy vision is critical for them to read, write, see the chalkboard or computer, and even to play. It’s more than seeing clearly up close and far away. Eyes also help you tell similar letters apart such as "b" and "d." And they allow you to remember details of what you read so you can picture the story in your mind.

Subtle Symptoms

Subtle Symptoms


If your child can't see well, they can have trouble learning. They might lose their place while reading or avoid doing it. Their grades might fall. Signs of an eye problem aren't always obvious. You might notice that they:

  • Rub their eyes a lot
  • Squint or blinks much of the time
  • Have lots of headaches due to eye strain
  • Tilt their head to one side
  • Cover one eye to see
  • Holds books close to their face


Problems You Can See

Problems You Can See


Changes in the way your child’s eyes look can be a hint that something’s wrong. Look for:

  • Bulging eyes
  • Drooping lids
  • Redness
  • Eyes that don’t work together
  • Gray or cloudy center
  • Pus or crusty drainage
  • Rapid movements (up and down or side to side)
  • Constant watering
  • A white pupil in a photo taken with a flash

Your child may also tell you their eyes hurt or feel itchy.

Early Detection Is Key

Early Detection Is Key


The most common eye problems in kids are blurred vision (refractive errors), crossed eyes (strabismus), and lazy eye (amblyopia). A regular eye exam can catch them early, before you or your child notices anything wrong. The longer they have has an untreated vision problem, the more their brain will work to make up for it. This can lead to future issues that may be harder to treat.

Is It Time To See the Eye Doctor?

Is It Time To See the Eye Doctor?


Children age 3 and up should get a complete eye exam by an eye doctor once every 1 to 2 years. Many kids get a check at school called "vision screening." It can tell if your child is likely to have problems. But it can't diagnose them. In fact, these tests can miss up to 60 percent of problems. Even as a newborn, your child should get an eye assessment and get an assessment during each checkup after. By the time they are 3, they should be ready for a more comprehensive test. Consider bringing along a favorite stuffed toy or holding them in your lap to distract them from fussing with equipment.

What Happens During the Exam?

What Happens During the Exam?


A detailed eye exam takes about 2 hours and involves many tests. Doctors might change things up so they can get closer to -- and be less likely to scare -- little tots. A school age kid’s exam will be a lot like yours. The doctor will check the outside of their eyes and watch how they follow a light or toy. They’ll cover one eye to see how the other moves and focuses. They’ll measure near and distance vision with an eye chart and ask your child to read the letters they can clearly see. Those who can’t read can identify shapes. The doctor may check for colorblindness. Older kids will look for numbers in colored dots; younger ones for shapes.

Focusing on Vision

Focusing on Vision


The large device with a bunch of lenses on it is called a phoropter, pronounced "fore-opter." Your child will peer through this to look at an eye chart. The doctor will switch from one lens to another while asking them which one is clear or fuzzy. This is called refraction testing. It shows which power eye lenses your child needs to clearly see. The doctor might use a lighted tool called a retinoscope to learn more about how your child’s eyes focus. A retinoscopy can help estimate the proper eyeglass prescription and can be especially helpful for young children who can't be tested using an eye chart.

Shine a Light on Eye Problems

Shine a Light on Eye Problems


Light also provides an up-close look inside your child’s eyes. The doctor will use a flashlight-like tool called an ophthalmoscope to peek inside. Some kids may get eye drops to widen or dilate the pupils 30 minutes before this test. To prepare your child for this, tell them the drops could sting and make things blurry for a bit. The doctor might use another lighted tool called a slit lamp microscope to get a 3-D view.

Correcting Kids’ Vision

Correcting Kids’ Vision


If you child fails a vision exam, prescription eyewear may help. Kids can wear glasses at any age. Choose plastic frames with an elastic strap if you have a toddler. Let an older child choose their own -- but make sure they have spring hinges, which last longer. You'll also want to make sure the lenses are made of polycarbonate or another shatter resistant material. Most kids aren’t mature enough to clean and use contacts until long after age 10. Vision correction surgery isn't advised for growing kids. A kid with glasses needs an eye exam every year.

Treating Other Eye Problems

Treating Other Eye Problems


If your child has lazy eye, they’ll get an eye patch or eye drops to blur vision in the good eye. This retrains the brain to see with the weak one. Glasses don’t always make a difference when used alone. But when you pair them with exercise, they can help kids with crossed eyes. Eye muscle surgery may straighten out the eyes, but it won’t improve vision. Babies born with cloudy eye lenses (cataracts) may have surgery, too.

Glasses for Young Athletes

Glasses for Young Athletes


Well-fitted, protective eyewear is a must for kids who wear glasses and play sports to prevent vision threatening eye injuries. Everyday prescription glasses aren't a good choice for the gym, track, rink, or ball field. An eye doctor can help you choose what’s right for your kid. You'll want frames made out of tough stuff that won’t break, like polycarbonate. Kids are out in the sun a lot. Ask about sunglasses to protect eyes from harmful ultraviolet light.

First Aid for Eyes

First Aid for Eyes


Treat injuries right away. Don’t let your child rub their injured eye -- that can scratch its delicate surface. If there's something in it, flip the upper eyelid over the lashes and ask them to blink several times. Tears help wash debris away. Flush their eye with clean water. If it doesn't come out, go to the ER. Also get emergency care if something hits their eye, if a chemical touches their eye, or if it’s bleeding.

Show Sources


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(6)   Science And Society Picture Library

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American Academy of Family Physicians: “Childhood Eye Examination.”

American Academy of Ophthalmology Eye Smart: "Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries."

American Academy of Ophthalmology Eye Smart: "Testing Children for Color Blindness."

American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy "Warning Signs of Vision Problems in Children."

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus: "Ambylopia."

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus: "Strabismus."

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus: "Vision Screening."

American Optometric Association: "Comprehensive Eye and Vision Exam."

American Optometric Association: “Pediatric Eye and Vision Examination.”

American Optometric Association: "Preschool Vision: 2 to 5 Years of Age."

American Optometric Association: "School-aged Vision: 6 to 18 Years of Age."

Cincinnati Children's Hospital: "Your Child's Eye Exam."

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The Vision Council: “Protecting Young Eyes.”