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American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology: "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)."
American Association for Respiratory Care: "YourLungHealth.Org: Living Well With COPD."
American Lung Association: "Understanding Chronic Bronchitis," "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease," "Living With COPD: Nutrition," "Surgery," "Living With COPD: A Life Change."
American Thoracic Society: "What Are the Signs and Symptoms of COPD?" "What Tests Can Be Done to Assess My Breathing?" "What Are Bronchodilators?" "What Are Corticosteroid (Anti-inflammatory) Medications?" "What Other Treatments Are Available?" "Why Do I Need Oxygen Therapy?"
American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society, Standards for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with COPD, 2004.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among Adults Aged 18 and Over in the United States, 1998-2009."
Cleveland Clinic: "Nutritional Guidelines for People With COPD."
COPD Foundation: "Getting Tested," "Risk Factors," "Healthy & Active Living."
COPD International: "Breathing: Pursed Lip/Diaphragm Exercises."
National Emphysema Foundation: "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)."
National Heart Lung and Blood Institute: "What Is COPD?" "Signs and Symptoms of COPD," "How Is COPD Diagnosed?" "How Is COPD Treated?" "Living With COPD."
National Institutes of Health: "What to Expect During Pulmonary Rehabilitation."
National Jewish Health: "COPD Treatment," "COPD: Lifestyle Management."
NCI Cancer Bulletin, "Searching For Commonalities Between Two Deadly Lung Diseases," March 9, 2010.
Rabe KF. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, September 15, 2007.
Texas Heart Institute: "Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease."
Reviewed by Debra Jaliman, MD on August 23, 2016
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