Social Distancing, Quarantine, and Isolation

What Is Social Distancing?

Social distancing, or physical distancing, means limiting close contact with people you don’t live with, both indoors and outdoors. It’s one of the best tools we have to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

It’s one of the types of distancing that government officials may recommend during a widespread outbreak of a disease. Others are quarantine, isolation, and shelter-in-place or stay-at-home.

What Is the Purpose of Social Distancing?

The coronavirus that causes COVID-19 spreads when people are in close contact. When someone who’s infected sneezes, coughs, or talks, it spreads droplets into the air. These tiny drops may infect others by getting into their lungs. It can happen even when the person who’s infected doesn’t have any symptoms or before their symptoms begin.

Keeping a safe distance helps you stay healthy and reduces the spread of the virus. When lots of people do it, this also helps the health care system be ready for patients who need care.

How to Practice Social Distancing

During social distancing, stay home when possible and limit gatherings. When you do need to go out:

  • Stay at least 6 feet away from others.
  • Wear a cloth face covering.
  • Avoid public transportation.
  • Don't go to crowded places like shopping malls, movie theaters, and stadiums.

To make social distancing easier, you may:

  • Work from home.
  • Use distance learning instead of going to school.
  • Limit or cancel meetings and travel plans.
  • Gather with friends and family on video platforms like Zoom or FaceTime instead of in person.
  • Get your groceries delivered or ask someone to pick them up for you.
  • Order your prescriptions by mail.

While you're social distancing, be sure to take other steps to protect yourself and the people around you:

  • Wash your hands well and often.
  • Try not to touch your eyes, mouth, or nose.
  • Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.
  • Don't share dishes, towels, or bedding, and wash these items often.
  • Often clean surfaces in your home, like counters and bathroom fixtures.

Who Should Practice Social Distancing?

Everyone should practice social distancing as much as possible during the pandemic. Rules may vary based on where you live. Check with local authorities to find out what’s OK and what’s not.

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Social distancing is especially important for people who have a higher risk of illness from COVID-19.

Your chances of severe illness go up with age. Someone who’s in their 50s is more likely to become seriously ill with COVID-19 than someone in their 40s, and so on. The highest risk is among people 85 and older.

Some other health conditions also make severe illness more likely:

Research shows that people who have these conditions might be at higher risk from COVID-19:

When Should You See Your Doctor?

Get medical help right away if you have severe symptoms such as:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Lasting pain or pressure in your chest
  • Confusion
  • Trouble waking up or staying awake
  • Blue lips or face

What Is Quarantine?

Quarantine is for people who don’t have symptoms but who might have been exposed to the coronavirus. The idea is to keep you from unknowingly infecting others.

Self-quarantine is usually voluntary. But the federal or state government may legally require you to do it.

Who Needs to Quarantine?

Anyone who’s been in close contact with a person who has COVID-19 should self-quarantine, even if you’ve had the virus before.

“Close contact” means you did one or more of these things:

  • Were within 6 feet of the person for at least 15 minutes
  • Cared for the person at home
  • Touched, hugged, or kissed them
  • Shared eating or drinking utensils with them
  • Got droplets on you when they sneezed or coughed

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How to Self-Quarantine at Home

To self-quarantine, you may:

  • Stay home except in case of emergency.
  • Avoid visitors, especially if they’re at higher risk of severe illness.
  • Watch for COVID-19 symptoms, such as fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath. If you get them, ask your doctor about getting tested for COVID-19.

How Long Does Quarantine Last?

Quarantines for the new coronavirus last 14 days because that’s how long it takes to know if you have the virus. After that, if you have no symptoms, your quarantine is over.

For example:

  • If you have close contact with a co-worker, neighbor, or friend with COVID-19 at noon on the first of the month, your quarantine would end at noon on the 15th.
  • If the ill person lives with you, they should stay in a separate bedroom, and you should avoid close contact with them for 14 days.
  • If you have contact with a sick person while you’re quarantined, start the 14 days over.
  • If you live with the person and can’t avoid close contact, stay home while they’re sick. Quarantine for 14 days after they meet the CDC criteria to end home isolation:
  • 10 days since symptoms began
  • 24 hours with no fever and no fever-reducing medication
  • Symptoms have gotten better

The CDC and scientists understand that quarntining can create an undue economic burden for some. Recognizing that, they su8ggest that you may be able to end your quarntine:

  • On day 10 without testing
  • On day 7 after receiving a negative test result

What Is Isolation?

Isolation is a health care term. It means separating people who are contagious from people who aren’t. If you have COVID-19, you’ll be isolated because you may infect others. There are two types of isolation:

  • Medical isolation. At hospitals, health care centers, and prisons, the staff separates people who are infected from people who aren’t. Staff members wear equipment like masks, gloves, and face shields to protect themselves and prevent spreading the virus.
  • Self-isolation. You'll be advised to self-isolate if you test positive for COVID-19 or if you have symptoms like coughing and fever but don’t need to be hospitalized. Self-isolation is usually voluntary. But public health agencies may legally require you to do it.

If you need to isolate:

  • Stay home unless it’s an emergency or you need medical care.
  • If you can, stay in a separate room from others in your household and use a separate bathroom.
  • If that's not possible, or you need to leave your space, keep 6 feet away from others.
  • Wear a mask when you have contact with others in your household.
  • Have food and other essential items delivered to your door.
  • Others in your household should leave home only if necessary, and take steps to avoid infecting other people.
  • If you need care, one member of your household should be designated as caregiver.
  • If you tested positive but weren't sick, be on the alert for signs of illness. If you get them, call your doctor.

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Stay at Home or Shelter in Place

During an outbreak, the government may issue a stay-at-home or shelter-in-place order to slow the spread of infection. Businesses considered essential, like grocery stores, health providers, and banks, may be open, while nonessential ones like bars and amusement parks are closed.

You’ll stay home except for necessary activities like doctor visits, grocery shopping, and certain jobs.

If you have stay-at-home orders, you may:

  • Leave home only to do things like shop for groceries, go to the doctor, care for a family member, exercise, or walk your dog.
  • Travel only if it’s considered “essential travel.”
  • Go to work only if your job is considered essential work.
  • Follow social distancing rules when you’re not home.

Don't go to work if you feel sick. If you have a higher risk of complications from COVID-19, stay home as much as possible, except when you need medical care.

Stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders are often thought to be the same thing. But shelter-in-place may be more restrictive. It’s a term traditionally used in emergency situations that require you to stay in a building, room, or vehicle until you’re given more information.

Rules may vary based on where you live and the orders that are in place.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD on December 03, 2020

Sources

SOURCES:

CDC: "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)."

CDC "When to Quarantine"

Cleveland Clinic: “COVID-19: Understanding Quarantine, Isolation and Social Distancing in a Pandemic.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Coronavirus, Social and Physical Distancing and Self-Quarantine.”

National League of Cities: “What’s the Difference Between Shelter in Place, Safer at Home, and Stay Home Orders?”

State of Colorado: “Stay at Home Order.”

State of Georgia: “COVID-19: Statewide Shelter in Place Order.”

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