With more and more people traveling again, you may wonder what's safe. It mainly depends on whether you've gotten the COVID-19 vaccine. Here's what to know if you're thinking about a trip in the U.S. or abroad.
What if I'm Fully Vaccinated?
It's safe for you to travel within the United States. “Fully vaccinated” means you have the most protection from your COVID-19 vaccine.
Top health experts recommend that you choose a vaccine made with mRNA (like the ones from Pfizer and Moderna) rather than the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, which is made differently. If you can't get an mRNA vaccine or you don't want to, get the J&J vaccine. Receiving any COVID-19 vaccine is much safer than being unvaccinated, experts say.
If you're fully vaccinated but you also have a weakened immune system because of a health condition or a certain medication, ask your doctor what travel precautions you should take.
The federal mask mandate ended on May 3, 2022. This happened after the CDC decided to end transportation mask requirements on April 18, 2022. You don’t have to wear a mask on airplanes, buses, trains, or other types of public transportation. The CDC no longer requires masks on cruise ships either.
Even though the mandate has ended, the CDC still recommends that you wear a mask over your mouth and nose when you’re in public in areas where the COVID -19 Community Level is high. If you are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19, or live with someone at higher risk, talk to your doctor about wearing a mask at medium COVID-19 Community Levels.
If you may have been exposed to someone with COVID-19, you’ll need to take certain steps. If you are up-to-date with your COVID-19 vaccines (meaning that you completed the primary series and at least one of the boosters when you were eligible) you should wear a mask around all others for 10 days and test for COVID-19 at least 5 days after your exposure. Stay away from people who may be at higher risk for severe COVID-19.
If you develop symptoms, get a test and stay home.
If you test positive:
- Stay at home for 5 days and isolate from others in your home.
- If you don’t show any symptoms or and you are fever-free for at least 24 hours without using any medicines that reduce your fever, and your other symptoms are improving.
- Wear your mask around other people for an extra 5 days.
What About Boosters?
Studies show that COVID-19 vaccine protection against infection or mild illness fades over time and that booster shots help.
Anyone in the U.S. who's 18 or older and who got two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, or one dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, should get a booster shot, the CDC recommends. Sixteen- and 17-year-olds who got their first two doses from Pfizer are also eligible to get the Pfizer booster.
Timing is important, too. Get your booster at least 6 months after the second dose of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine and at least 2 months after the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.
Anyone in the U.S. who's 18 or older and who got two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines, or one dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, should get a booster shot, the CDC recommends. Twelve- to 17-year-olds who got their first two doses from Pfizer are also eligible to get the Pfizer booster.
But remember, teens 16 and 17 who got the Pfizer vaccine are allowed only to get a Pfizer booster shot.
What if I'm Not Vaccinated?
It's risky for you to travel within the U.S. if you haven't gotten the COVID-19 vaccine or if you don't have its full protection yet.
You're not considered “fully vaccinated” until:
- Two weeks after your second dose of a two-dose vaccine, like Pfizer or Moderna
- Two weeks after a single-dose vaccine, like Johnson & Johnson
People who aren't vaccinated are more likely to catch COVID-19 and spread it. That's why the CDC recommends that you put off trips until you're fully vaccinated.
Don't travel if you:
- Feel sick
- Have had a COVID-19 test and are waiting on the results
- Got a recent positive test result
- Think you've been around someone with COVID-19
If you have to travel before you're fully vaccinated, take some steps to protect yourself and the people around you:
- Get a COVID-19 test 1 to 3 days before you leave.
- Wear a mask on planes, buses, trains, and other types of public transportation.
- Wear a mask in airports, stations, and other travel hubs.
- Try to stay 6 feet apart from people who aren't traveling with you.
- Wash your hands often or use a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
Also, find out ahead of time whether the place you're visiting has quarantine requirements for when you arrive. Check with state or territorial and local health departments to learn more.
After you come back from your trip, you may need to get a COVID-19 test within 3 to 5 days or self-quarantine at home. If you think you were exposed to COVID-19, call your doctor and stay home so you don't spread the coronavirus to other people:
- Stay at home for 5 days and wear a mask around other people for an extra 5 days.
- If you’re not able to quarantine, wear a mask for 10 days.
- Take a test on day 5.
If you start having symptoms, get a test and stay home.
If you test positive for COVID-19:
- Stay home for 5 days.
- If you don’t have symptoms or your symptoms go away after 5 days, you can leave your home.
- Continue to wear your mask around other people for an extra 5 days.
- If you have a fever, stay home until it goes away.
Whether you get a COVID-19 test or not, keep your distance from people who are at high risk of getting severely sick from COVID-19.
Does It Matter How I Travel?
No matter how you go, travel and being around people who don't live in your household raise your risk of getting and spreading COVID-19 -- even if you're fully vaccinated. But as schools, offices, businesses, and other places start to reopen, the CDC has issued some guidelines about different modes of transportation.
Following the CDC guidelines can help you protect yourself and those around you as you go about your daily activities or plan vacations.
Personal vehicle. If you travel in a car, only people who are necessary should be in it. If everyone in the car is vaccinated, you don't need to wear masks. If not, try to keep 6 feet (about two arm lengths) between you and wear masks. It's also a good idea to improve ventilation: Roll down the windows or set your air-conditioning to non-recirculating mode to draw in fresh air.
Before you use a rental car, wipe down the door handles, the steering wheel, and the dashboard with sanitizer containing 60% alcohol. At your destination, wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
Follow the same guidelines when you rent scooters or skateboards for personal use.
Public transportation. The CDC continues to recommend that you wear a mask in indoor public transportation settings, such as a train or bus. Try to:
- Follow social distancing guidelines of keeping 6 feet apart from other riders.
- Skip a few rows of seats to maintain distance.
- Travel during non-peak hours.
- Avoid touching too many surfaces.
- Avoid huddling in groups with other riders at travel hubs or stations.
Rideshare, taxi, or carpool. If you're using rideshare apps or sharing rides with people you're not familiar with or who are not from your household, take these steps to protect yourself:
- Wear a mask.
- Avoid rides if the driver and other riders are not properly wearing masks.
- Put at least two arm lengths of space between you and other riders whenever possible.
- Sit in the back seat diagonally from the driver, rather than directly behind them.
- Ask the driver to improve ventilation when they can.
- Try not to touch water bottles, magazines, or other items that other riders may have used.
- Use touchless payment if possible.
- Carry sanitizer with 60% alcohol to clean your hands before and after each trip.
Bicycling, walking, or using a wheelchair. When you're out in the open walking, biking, or using mobility assistive devices like a wheelchair, keep a distance from other people who're not from your household.
You should also:
- Avoid crowds or tight spaces.
- If someone is coming toward you or passing you, try to stay 6 feet away, stay as far to your right as possible, or cross the street.
- Carry a clean mask in case you have to be close to others.
- Avoid touching common surfaces as much as possible.
Cruise ships. The CDC encourages all cruise ships operating in U.S. waters to participate in the CDC’s COVID-19 Program for Cruise Ships. This helps passengers make informed decisions about taking a cruise.
If you do take a cruise, follow these guidelines when you return:
- No matter your vaccination status, get a COVID-19 test 3 to 5 days after your return.
- If you test positive, follow the instructions above.
- Watch for COVID-19 symptoms. If you notice any, get tested.
If you're fully vaccinated, the CDC says, you don't need to quarantine after cruise travel.
Viruses spread easily between people in close quarters like on cruise ships. So the CDC recommends that you avoid traveling on cruise ships, including river cruises, worldwide if:
- You are not up to date with your COVID-19 vaccines.
- You have an increased risk of severe illness, regardless of vaccination status. This includes people who are older or have any serious chronic medical conditions such as heart disease, chronic lung disease, or diabetes, and children with underlying medical conditions.
Before you take a cruise, check with your state and local health agencies for guidelines. Also look into the CDC guidelines for your destination.
No matter which mode of transportation you take, carry a mask in case you find yourself in a crowded place. Avoid touching common surfaces as much as you can. Use hand sanitizer before and after travel, and wash your hands with soap and water when you reach your destination.
For gatherings with family and friends, the first step is learning their vaccination status if you can. Those who are unvaccinated or who have weakened immune systems have a much higher risk of getting COVID-19 and of having the most serious symptoms. They're also more likely to pass the infection to others.
If they make up part of your gathering, it's best to social distance and wear a mask unless you're outside.
If you're fully vaccinated but feel sick or know you've come into contact with the virus, get tested 5 to 7 days after exposure so you know whether to stay home.
If you're unvaccinated, get tested immediately after exposure and, if it's negative, again 5 to 7 days later.
The CDC recommends that everyone wear a mask indoors in areas with substantial to high levels of virus transmission, even if they're fully vaccinated. In general, look for small crowds and outdoor activities, and avoid close quarters that are poorly ventilated.
What if I Want to Travel Abroad?
Whether you're fully vaccinated or not, you'll need to do some prep work. First, find out if the country you're going to has entry requirements or restrictions. You'll need to follow all of its requirements, or you may get sent home. Also ask your airline about its requirements for COVID-19 testing and paperwork.
You should also find out whether COVID-19 is spreading in the country you plan to visit. Take a look at the CDC's “COVID-19 Travel Recommendations by Destination” to find the current level of risk.
If you're not fully vaccinated, get a COVID-19 test in time to have your result 1 to 3 days before you travel. If you're fully vaccinated, you don't need to get tested beforehand unless the place you're traveling to requires it.
Flying back to the U.S. is a different story. Everyone -- even fully vaccinated people -- must get a negative COVID-19 test result no more than 1 day before they travel and be able to show that result to airline officials before they get on their flight. Or they must be able to show proof that they've had the virus and recovered within the past 3 months. The precautions for returning travelers are in place because of the COVID-19 variants still spreading around the world.
If you plan to take a COVID-19 test and show the airline your result, it must be a viral test that checks to see if you're infected. Two types of accepted viral tests are “antigen tests” and “nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT).” (The most common type of NAAT is a PCR test.)
The viral test you use needs to be authorized by the national health agency for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in the country where the test is given.
A rapid test that meets those requirements is acceptable. You can get one at certain pharmacies and health clinics.
A self-test (also called an at-home test) is accepted if:
- It's a SARS-CoV-2 viral test (antigen or NAAT test) authorized for use by the FDA or the national health agency in the country where you've traveled to.
- The testing process includes a telehealth service affiliated with the test maker that offers real-time supervision over the internet. Some self-tests approved by the FDA include a telehealth service that may require a doctor's prescription.
- The telehealth service must verify your identity, watch you take the test, and confirm the test result. It also needs to give you a written or digital report that includes this information:
- The type of test of you took (antigen or NAAT)
- The name of the company providing the test result
- The date you collected your test sample
- Info that identifies you (your full name along with your birthdate or passport number)
- Your test result
- Airlines and other aircraft personnel need to be able to review your test result and confirm your identity. You also have to be able to show your result to U.S. officials at the port of entry if they ask for it.
The country you've traveled to might not accept the result of a self-test that isn't authorized or registered there. So if you're thinking about bringing a self-test authorized in the U.S., call the authorities at your destination and ask if they'll accept it before you travel.