What Is a Pinched Nerve in the Elbow?

A pinched nerve happens when too much pressure is placed against a nerve by bones, tendons, muscles, or cartilage.

It can start in several places throughout your body, usually in the joints. When a pinched nerve is in your elbow, it’s called “ulnar nerve entrapment.” It can leave your arm and hand feeling sore, numb, or weak.

Causes

The ulnar nerve runs the entire length of your arm. It helps control the muscles in the forearm and hand. Sensations affecting your ring finger and little finger also travel though the ulnar nerve. Its most vulnerable point is at the elbow.

If you’ve ever hit your elbow, or “funny bone,” hard and felt a tingling down to your fingers, you’ve compressed your ulnar nerve.

Leaning on your elbow for a long time can also irritate the nerve. Whenever you bend your elbow, you’re forcing the nerve to stretch around the bones in the joint. If you sleep with your elbows bent, for instance, or you keep your elbows bent for a long time, you’re putting more pressure on your ulnar nerve.

A buildup of fluid in the elbow, caused by a condition such as bursitis, for instance, can also entrap the nerve.

Symptoms

One of the first signs that you may have a pinched nerve in the elbow is weakness in your hand. You may not be able to grip things as tightly as you used to or lift heavy things the way you once did.

Your hand may be more tender, more easily hurt, too. The ring finger and little finger may not be as strong and flexible as they used to be.

Other symptoms of ulnar nerve entrapment include:

  • tingling or numbness in the hand, especially the ring and little fingers
  • cold sensitivity in the affected arm or hand
  • tenderness at the elbow

These symptoms tend to come and go at first. You may notice them more when your elbow is bent. You may even wake up in the middle of the night with a tingling feeling in your fingers.

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Who Tends to Get This?

Reasons for compression of the ulnar nerve in the elbow aren’t always known. You may not recall injuring your elbow or bending your elbow too much. Your chances of getting ulnar nerve entrapment are higher, though, if your elbow:

  • has arthritis
  • has been fractured
  • was dislocated
  • has been repeatedly injured

When Do I Call a Doctor?

If a pinched nerve in the elbow goes untreated for a long time, there could be permanent damage.

Muscles controlled by the nerve may begin to get smaller and shorter. This is called muscle wasting, and it can’t always be reversed.

To avoid this problem, see a doctor quickly if you start to have severe pain, weakness, or tingling in your arm or hand. Even if your discomfort doesn’t feel serious, call your doctor if it’s been with you for at least 6 weeks.

Diagnosis and Tests

To get a proper diagnosis, you should see an orthopedist. Try to find someone who specializes in elbows and wrists.

If you have arthritis and you see a rheumatologist, you may want to start with that doctor. She may later recommend you to an orthopedist. What you might expect:

Medical review: Diagnosing the problem usually starts with a review of your medical history and your lifestyle. If you do a lot of heavy lifting or play contact sports, these would be helpful details to pass along.

Physical exam: Your doctor will likely do a physical exam of your arm, tapping the spot where the nerve crosses the bone in your elbow. The doctor may also want to see whether the nerve itself slides out of its proper position when your elbow bends.

You may be asked to put your arms in different positions and turn your neck from side to side to see whether that causes any pain or numbness. Your doctor may check the strength in your fingers and hand, and test for feeling in those areas.

X-ray: You might have an X-ray taken so your doctor can look for bone spurs or arthritis. These may be placing pressure on your nerve.

Nerve conduction study: In this test, the doctor stimulates your ulnar nerve in various places. An area that takes longer to respond may be where the nerve is compressed.

This test is also helpful in diagnosing muscle wasting caused by nerve problems.

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Treatment

Once you’ve been diagnosed with ulnar nerve entrapment, it will be time to decide how to treat the problem. The severity of the condition will help you and your doctor decide whether surgery or a less-invasive strategy is best.

Nonsurgical treatments include:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: NSAIDs can reduce pain and inflammation.

A splint or brace: These can keep your elbow straight, especially while you’re sleeping.

An elbow pad: This helps reduce pressure on the joint.

Occupational and physical therapy: This will improve the strength and flexibility of your arm and hand.

Nerve-gliding exercise: Do this to help guide the nerve through the proper “tunnels” in the wrist and elbow.

If nonsurgical options haven’t eased your symptoms or there is obvious muscle damage, surgery may be necessary.

The goal of surgery is to remove pressure from the nerve. In some cases, the nerve is moved as part of the operation.

Some surgical treatment options include:

Ulnar nerve anterior transposition: This moves the ulnar nerve so that it doesn’t stretch over the bony parts of the elbow joint.

Medial epicondylectomy: This removes the bump on the inside of the elbow joint, which takes pressure off the ulnar nerve.

Cubital tunnel release: This removes part of the compressed tube through which the nerve passes in the elbow.

Self-care at Home

If you have surgery, physical therapy to regain your arm and hand strength will likely be advised.

You might need a splint for a few weeks to help make sure the elbow heals properly.

Ongoing care for your elbow should include steps to avoid injuring or irritating the nerve further. You should be careful to avoid trauma to your elbow.

You may also need to learn, with occupational therapy, how to hold your arm differently, stretch, or take frequent breaks when doing everyday activities such as working on your computer.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by William Blahd, MD on December 29, 2016

Sources

SOURCES:

Mayo Clinic: “Pinched nerve: Definition.”

UCLA Health: “Ulnar nerve entrapment.”

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Ulnar nerve entrapment.”

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: “Ulnar nerve entrapment at the Elbow).”

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