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American Academy of Family Physicians: "Opioid Addiction."
American Association of Poison Control Centers: "Opioid (Narcotic) Pain Medications."
American Cancer Society: “Common opioids by generic name.”
American Society of Addiction Medicine: "Opioid Addiction 2016 Facts and Figures."
Arthritis Foundation: "Stopping Narcotic Pain Medication."
CDC: "CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain—United States, 2016," "Opioid Basics," "Prescription Opioids."
Cleveland Clinic: "Choose Painkiller Carefully if You Take Coumadin," "The Down Side and Side Effects of Painkillers."
FDA: "A Guide to Safe Use of Pain Medicine," "What to Ask Your Doctor Before Taking Opioids."
Hospital for Special Surgery: "The Top 10 Myths of Chronic Pain."
Mayo Clinic: "Pain Medications After Surgery," "Prescription Drug Abuse Risk Factors."
National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment: "How Do Opioids Work in the Brain?" "Physical Dependence and Addiction," "What Drugs Are Opioids?"
National Institute on Drug Abuse: "America’s Addiction to Opioids: Heroin and Prescription Drug Abuse," "Commonly Used Long-Acting Opioids Chart," "Opioids," "Opioid Crisis," "Prescription Opioid Use is a Risk Factor for Heroin Use," "Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction."
St. Peter's Hospital: "Understanding the Basics of Pain Management: Facts and Myths."
UptoDate: "Opioid Withdrawal: Clinical Manifestations, Course, Assessment, and Diagnosis."
Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian on November 03, 2019
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