Next Slideshow Title
IMAGES PROVIDED BY:
1) Ballyscanlon / Digital Vision
2) Dave & Les Jacobs / Cultura
3) CHASSENET / BSIP
4) Steve Cole / the Agency Collection
5) Herbert Kehrer / imagebroker
6) Seth Joel / Photographer's Choice
7) Cassio Vasconcellos / SambaPhoto
8) CHASSENET / BSIP
9) CHASSENET / BSIP
10) Andy Crawford / Dorling Kindersley
11) Laurence Mouton / Es Collection
12) Will & Deni McIntyre / Photo Researchers, Inc.
13) Corbis / Corbis RF
14) altrendo images / altrendo
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: "Low Back Pain Fact Sheet."
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: "Managing Acute Back Pain."
National Sleep Foundation: "Pain and Sleep."
Kundermann, B. Pain Research & Management, Spring 2004; vol 9: pp 25-32.
National Health Information Center: "Prevent Back Pain."
New York Times, Health: "Sit Up Straight. Your Back Thanks You."
American Academy of Family Physicians: "Pain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC Options."
Turk, D. The Lancet, June 25, 2011; vol 377: pp 2226-2235.
American Pain Foundation, Pain SAFE: "Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)."
Pain Management Treatment: "Medication for Pain Relief."
Spine-health.com: "Muscle Relaxants," "Injections for Back Pain Relief."
Dharmshaktu, P. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; March 17, 2011.
Urquhart, D. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; 2008, issue 1.
Skljarevski, V. Spine, June 1, 2010; vol 35: pp E578-E585.
Oregon Health & Science University: "Physical Therapy."
Cherkin, D. Annals of Internal Medicine; July 5, 2011; vol 155: pp 1-9.
Berman, B. New England Journal of Medicine; July 29, 2010; vol 363: pp 454-461.
Department of Pain Medicine & Palliative Care: "Stimulatory Approaches."
Lamb, S. Lancet, March 13, 2010; vol 375: pp 916-923.
David Fish, MD, MPH, associate professor of orthopedics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles.
Reviewed by Tyler Wheeler, MD on June 07, 2020
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
View our slideshows to learn more about your health.