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American Stroke Association: "Spasticity," "Functional Electrical Stimulation," "Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy," "Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills."
The Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation Study: "Stroke Savvy."
National Stroke Association: "Treating Post Stroke Mobility Problems," "Muscle Weakness After Stroke: Hemiparesis."
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: "Stroke Rehabilitation Information," "Post Stroke Rehabilitation," "Stroke: Challenges, Progress, and Promise."
Duncan, P. "Management of Adult Stroke Rehabilitation Care: A Clinical Practice Guideline." Stroke, 2005; vol 36: pp e100-e143.
Randie M. Black-Schaffer, M.D., M.A., Medical Director, Stroke Program, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, MA.
The Ohio State University Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Services: "Assisted Arm Range of Motion," "Self-Range of Motion Exercises for Shoulders, Arms, Wrists, and Fingers," "Arm Strengthening Program," "Electrical Stimulation," "Activities to Improve Fine Motor Coordination in Hands."
Harris, J. "Strength Training Improves Upper-Limb Function in Individuals With Stroke." Stroke, 2010; vol 41: pp 136-140.
International Functional Electric Stimulation Society: "ES in Stroke and Brain Injury."
Shaw, S. Botulinum Toxin Type A for Upper Limb Spasticity After Stroke. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 2009; vol 9 no 12: pp 1713-25.
Saulino, M. "The Pharmacological Management of Spasticity." The Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 2006; vol 38, no 6: pp456-459.
WebMD Medical Reference from Medicinenet.com: "Definition of Neuroplasticity."
Reviewed by Suzanne R. Steinbaum, MD on February 15, 2017
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
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