Reviewed by Melinda
Ratini, MS, DO on
May 27, 2016
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American Academy of Family Physicians: “Urinary Tract Infections -- Treatment” and “Urinary Tract Infections: Other Causes of Painful Urination.”
American Diabetes Association: “Symptoms.”
American Urological Association Foundation: “Problems Urinating in Public (Paruresis)” and “Urinary Tract Infections in Adults.”
Barbosa-Cesnik, C. Clinical Infectious Diseases , January 2011.
Bladder and Bowel Foundation: “Frequency.”
Harvard Health Publications: “Color, odor changes in urine usually -- but not always -- harmless, reports Harvard Women’s Health Watch.”
Harvard Women’s Health Watch: “Urine Color and Odor Changes.”
Healthwise: “Kidney Stones,” “Marine Stings and Scrapes -- Home Treatment.”
Jura, Y. The Journal of Urology, published online March 18, 2011.
National Association for Continence: “Diet and Daily Habits.”
National Kidney & Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse: “Urinary Tract Infections in Adults;” “Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome;” and “Urinary Incontinence in Women.”
Soifer, S. Urologic Nursing, March-April 2009.
Stanford School of Medicine: “The Significance of Abnormal Urine Color.”
Tikkinen, K. The Journal of Urology, February 2006.
University of Colorado Hospital: “The Orthotopic Neobladder.”
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign McKinley Health Center: “Urinary Tract Infections in Women.”
Foxman, B. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology , August 2015.
Reuters: "Not all cranberry supplements prevent urinary tract infections," April 28, 2016.
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