What Is a Pelvic Exam?
A pelvic exam is a way for doctors to look for signs of illness in certain organs in a woman's body. The word "pelvic" refers to the pelvis. The exam is used to look at a woman's:
- Vulva (external genital organs)
- Uterus (the womb)
- Cervix (opening from the vagina to the uterus)
- Fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs to the womb)
- Ovaries (organs that produce eggs)
- Bladder (the sac that holds urine)
- Rectum (the chamber that connects the colon to the anus)
When Are Pelvic Exams Done?
Pelvic exams are performed:
- During a yearly physical exam
- When a woman is pregnant
- When a doctor is checking for an infection (such as chlamydia, vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and others)
- When a woman is having pain in their pelvic area or low back
Pelvic Exam Preparation
Because a Pap test is typically done during a routine pelvic exam, you should schedule the exam when you are not having your period.
In addition, for 48 hours prior to the exam, you should not:
- Use a tampon
- Have sex
- Use birth control foam, cream, or jelly
- Use medicine or cream in your vagina
What Can I Expect During a Pelvic Exam?
You can expect to feel a little discomfort, but you should not feel pain during a pelvic exam. The exam itself takes about 10 minutes. If you have any questions during the exam, be sure to ask your doctor.
Pelvic Exam Procedure
During a typical pelvic exam, your doctor or nurse may:
- Ask you to take off your clothes in private. (You will be given a gown or other covering.)
- Talk to you about any health concerns.
- Ask you to lie on your back and relax.
- Press down on areas of the lower stomach to feel the organs from the outside
- Help you get in position for the speculum exam. (You may be asked to slide down to the end of the table.)
- Ask you to bend your knees and to place your feet in holders called stirrups.
- Perform the speculum exam. During the exam, a device called a speculum will be inserted into the vagina. The speculum is opened to widen the vagina so that the vagina and cervix can be seen.
- Perform a Pap smear. Your doctor will use a plastic spatula and small brush to take a sample of cells from the cervix. (A sample of fluid also may be taken from the vagina to test for infection.)
- Remove the speculum.
- Perform a bimanual exam. Your doctor will place two fingers inside the vagina and use the other hand to gently press down on the area they are feeling. Your doctor is noting if the organs have changed in size or shape.
- Sometimes a rectal exam is done. Your doctor inserts a gloved finger into the rectum to detect any tumors or other abnormalities.
- Talk to you about the exam. (You may be asked to return to get test results.)
What Tests Are Done During the Pelvic Exam?
A sample of cells may be taken as part of a regular test called a Pap smear, or Pap test, to screen for cervical cancer or cells that look like they might lead to cancer. The sample is placed in a solution and sent to a lab where it is examined. Tests also may be done to screen for sexually transmitted diseases.
How Often Should I Get a Pelvic Exam?
A Pap smear is recommended starting when women reach 21 years of age. Women ages 21-65 should have routine screening with Pap test every 3 years.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) also recommends having a human papillomavirus (HPV) test or combining it with a Pap test starting after age 30.
Women over age 65 can stop getting screened if they’ve had at least three consecutive negative Pap tests or at least two negative HPV tests within the previous 10 years, according to the guidelines. But women who have a history of a more advanced precancer diagnosis should continue to be screened for at least 20 years.
Pelvic Exam Results
Some women have a Pap smear done during a pelvic exam to screen for cervical cancer. The test may be done with a human papillomavirus (HPV) test. But a pelvic exam may be done for other reasons and doesn’t always include these tests.
If you have a Pap smear or HPV test done, it can take a few days to get results. Pap smear results are usually reported as unclear, normal, or abnormal. An HPV test is typically reported as negative or positive.
There are many different combinations of results. Your doctor will review your results with you and discuss your cancer risk and any need for retesting.