Dandruff flakes appear when skin cells on the scalp rapidly reproduce and peel off. “The flakes are often accompanied by itching caused from scalp inflammation,” says Charles Crutchfield III, MD, clinical professor of dermatology at the University of Minnesota Medical Center in Fairview. Flare-ups happen more often in the dry winter months, and not just on your scalp -- you also may see them on your nose, eyebrows, ears, armpits, and groin. Try switching between over-the-counter dandruff shampoos containing different ingredients. Severe cases may need a prescription shampoo and a corticosteroid or antifungal medication. Dandruff can be a lifelong condition. “If you find yourself wearing special clothing or avoiding situations because of dandruff, it’s time to see a dermatologist,” Crutchfield says.
Rosacea causes small blood vessels in your face, scalp, neck, and ears to swell, making skin look flushed. “It looks a bit like adult acne with red, pimply bumps mostly covering your nose and cheeks,” says Linda Stein Gold, MD, division head of dermatology at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. Rosacea never goes away, but you can fight the inflammation with prescription antibiotic or retinoid creams and light therapy. Before braving the cold, protect your face with a soft scarf and use a soothing cream to create a barrier on your skin to help reduce dryness, roughness, and discomfort.