'Baldi' Helps Kids With Autism
Virtual Talking Head Teaches Autistic Children Language Skills
Feb. 15, 2008 (Boston) -- Children generally love to play with computers,
but many children with autism prefer interacting with a computer to conversing
with a person. Many scientists have been working on ways to take advantage of
that to help autistic kids learn.
A virtual talking head, or "embodied conversational agent,"
nicknamed Baldi by its creators, is one of the latest technologies being used
to teach language skills to autistic kids. Dominic Massaro, PhD, a language
researcher at the University of California, Santa Cruz, demonstrated Baldi at
this week's annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of
If you've seen virtual characters in video games, you may notice that as
realistically rendered as they may be, their mouths typically don't move in a
natural way when speaking. The difference with Baldi is the extent to which
Massaro has realistically modeled the virtual mouth movements. Baldi's whole
face -- including the tongue, jaw, and lips -- moves the way a real person's
does when making different spoken sounds. This is important for learning,
Massaro says, because language is learned not only by ear but also by sight.
"People use cues from both the face and the voice," he says.
In experiments with Baldi, Massaro showed that children recognized many more
words in sentences when watching the talking head than by listening only.
To accurately model mouth movements for the computer graphics, Massaro used
ultrasound images of people's tongues during speaking.
Measurements are taken with sensors placed all over the face and a special
sensing plate placed inside the mouth. The inside of Baldi's mouth can be
revealed to see how he's making a certain sound, like an "r" sound or
Learning with Baldi occurs in the context of a software program with
features that are friendly to autistic kids.
The program uses a style called "errorless" learning. "The child
is not told he's wrong if he makes a mistake," Massaro says. Instead, the
program will suggest how to get to the right answer in positive terms. For
example, the program prompts, "Click on elephant." If the child clicks
on a picture of a giraffe instead, it will say, "You clicked on giraffe. A
giraffe is an animal with a long neck. An elephant is an animal with a long
trunk. Can you click on elephant?"
For autistic children who become easily frustrated, this can be a big plus.
The virtual tutor is also available 24/7 and has endless patience. Part of what
makes him appealing to autistic kids is that he never gets frustrated with
them. He's predictable.
"Children with autism are very uncomfortable with unpredictability,"
says Justine Cassell, PhD, a researcher at Northwestern University in Evanston,
Ill., who works on a different virtual reality program that teaches social
skills to autistic kids.