Immunoglobulin (also called gamma globulin or immune globulin) is a substance made from human blood plasma. The plasma, processed from donated human blood, contains antibodies that protect the body against diseases. When you are given an immunoglobulin, your body uses antibodies from other people's blood plasma to help prevent illness. And even though immunoglobulins are obtained from blood, they are purified so that they can't pass on diseases to the person who receives them.
Specific types of immunoglobulin are made to protect against specific diseases, such as hepatitis, chickenpox, or measles. Immunoglobulin injections may:
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a virus that is of interest because it replicates (makes copies of itself) more quickly in human cancer cells than in most normal human cells and because it can kill these host cells (see Question 1).
NDV can be used to directly kill cancer cells, or it can be given as a cancervaccine. Cancervaccines cause the body's natural immune system to seek out and destroy cancer cells (see Question 4).
The results of clinical trials (research studies with people)...
Help people who have an inherited problem making their own antibodies or those who are having treatment for certain types of cancer (such as leukemia). Treatments for some cancers can cause the body to stop producing its own antibodies, making immunoglobulin treatment necessary.
You may be given an immunoglobulin if you are exposed to certain infectious diseases, such as hepatitis A, rubella, or measles. The immunoglobulin may prevent or reduce the severity of the illness if given shortly after exposure. The time period during which an injection provides this benefit ranges from days to months, depending on the disease.
Immunoglobulins do not provide long-term protection in the same way as a traditional vaccine. The protection they provide is short-term, usually lasting a few months. It is still possible to get the disease after the immunoglobulin has worn off.
When an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus (which can occur when the father's blood is Rh-positive), the pregnant woman's immune system makes antibodies that can destroy the fetus's blood in a future pregnancy. This antibody response is called Rh sensitization and occurs only if the fetus's blood mixes with the pregnant woman's, which can happen during birth.
To prevent Rh sensitization during pregnancy, you must have an Rh immunoglobulin injection if you are Rh-negative. This is done during your pregnancy and after delivery to protect the fetus of a future pregnancy.