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    Oral Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    Background

    Incidence and mortality

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    An estimated 42,440 new cases of oral cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2014, and an estimated 8,390 people will die of the disease.[1] This form of cancer accounts for about 4% of cancers in men.[1] The overall annual incidence in the United States is about 10.8 per 100,000 men and women; the median age at diagnosis of oral cavity or pharyngeal cancer was 62 years from 2005 to 2009.[2]

    From 2006 to 2010, incidence rates were stable in men but decreased in women by 0.9% per year.[1] However, incidence has recently been increasing for oral cancers related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. About 60% of oral/pharyngeal cancers are moderately advanced (regional stage) or metastatic at the time of diagnosis.[1]

    The estimated annual worldwide number of incident oral cancers is about 275,000, with an approximately 20-fold variation geographically.[3] South and Southeast Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), France, and Brazil have particularly high rates. In most countries, men have higher rates of oral cancer than women (due to tobacco use) and higher rates of lip cancer (due to sunlight exposure from outdoor occupations).[3]

    Risk factors

    The primary risk factors for oral cancer in American men and women are tobacco (including smokeless tobacco) and alcohol use. Infection with HPV-16 has been associated with an excess risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.[4]

    Evidence of Benefit Associated With Screening

    No population-based screening programs for oral cancers have been implemented in developed countries, although opportunistic screening or screening as part of a periodic health examination has been advocated.[5,6] There are different methods of screening for oral cancers. Oral cancer occurs in a region of the body that is generally accessible to physical examination by the patient, the dentist, and the physician; and visual examination is the most common method used to detect visible lesions. Other methods have been used to augment clinical detection of oral lesions and include toluidine blue, brush biopsy, and fluorescence staining.

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