Has your doctor said you have high cholesterol? Then you know you need to change your diet and lifestyle to lower cholesterol and your risk of heart disease. Even if your doctor prescribed a cholesterol drug to bring levels down, you'll still need to change your diet and become more active for heart health. These simple tips can help you keep cholesterol levels in check.
Cholesterol, Good and Bad
Your body needs a small amount of cholesterol to function properly. But we may get too much saturated fat and cholesterol in our diet, and both raise levels of LDL "bad" cholesterol. LDL cholesterol can cause plaque to build up in arteries, leading to heart disease. HDL "good" cholesterol, on the other hand, helps clear bad cholesterol from your blood. You want to lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol, starting with your diet.
Portion Control: Lend a Hand
Many Americans eat supersized meals, with portions that are twice the size recommended for good health. That can contribute to weight gain and high cholesterol. Here's an easy way to practice portion control for a meal: Use your hand. One serving of meat or fish is about what fits in the palm of your hand. One serving of fresh fruit is about the size of your fist. And a serving of cooked vegetables, rice, or pasta should fit in your cupped hand.
Serve Up the Heart-Healthy Food
Load your plate with fruits and vegetables -- five to nine servings a day -- to help lower LDL "bad" cholesterol. Antioxidants in these foods may provide the benefit. Or it may be that when we eat more fruits and veggies, we eat less fatty foods. Either way, you'll also help lower blood pressure and maintain a healthy weight. Foods enriched with plant sterols, such as some margarine spreads, yogurts, and other foods, can also help lower LDL cholesterol.
For Heart Health, Look to the Sea
A heart-healthy diet has fish on the menu twice a week. Why? Fish is low in saturated fat and high in healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids help lower levels of triglycerides, a type of fat in the blood. They may also help lower cholesterol, slowing the growth of plaque in arteries. Go for fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, trout, and sardines. Just don't drop the fillets in the deep fryer -- you'll undo the health benefits.
Start Your Day With Whole Grains
A bowl of oatmeal or other whole-grain cereal has benefits that last all day. The fiber and complex carbohydrates in whole grains help you feel fuller for longer, so you'll be less tempted to overeat at lunch. They also help lower LDL "bad" cholesterol and can help you lose weight. Other examples of whole grains include wild rice, popcorn, brown rice, and barley.
Go Nuts for Heart Health
Need a snack? A handful of nuts is a tasty treat that helps in lowering cholesterol. Nuts are high in monounsaturated fat, which lowers LDL "bad" cholesterol while leaving HDL "good" cholesterol intact. Several studies show that people who eat about an ounce of nuts a day are less likely to get heart disease. Nuts are high in fat and calories, so eat only a handful. And make sure they're not covered in sugar or chocolate.
Unsaturated Fats Protect the Heart
We all need a little fat in our diet -- about 25% to 35% of our daily calories. But the type of fat matters. Unsaturated fats -- like those found in canola, olive, and safflower oils -- help lower LDL "bad" cholesterol levels and may help raise HDL "good" cholesterol. Saturated fats -- like those found in butter and palm oil -- and trans fats raise LDL cholesterol. Even good fats have calories, so eat in moderation.
More Beans, Fewer Potatoes
You need carbohydrates for energy, but some do your body more good than others. Beans, and whole grains such as brown rice, quinoa, and whole wheat, have more fiber and raise sugar levels less. These help lower cholesterol and keep you feeling full longer. Other carbs, like those found in white bread, white potatoes, white rice, and pastries, boost blood sugar levels more quickly, leading you to feel hungry sooner, and may make you more likely to overeat.
Even 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week (or 20 minutes three times a week for vigorous exercise, such as jogging) can help lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol. More exercise is even better. Being active also helps you reach and keep a healthy weight, cutting your chance of developing clogged arteries. You don't have to exercise for 30 minutes straight. You can break it up into 10-minute sessions.
Walk It Off
If you're not used to exercising or don't want to go to a gym, take a walk. It's easy, healthy, and all you need is a good pair of shoes. Aerobic exercise ("cardio") such as brisk walking lowers risk of stroke and heart disease, helps you lose weight, and keeps bones strong. If you're just starting out, try a 10-minute walk and gradually build up from there.
Work Out Without Going to the Gym
You can exercise anywhere. Gardening, dancing, or walking your dog counts. Even housework can qualify as exercise, if it gets your heart rate up.
Take Charge of Your Health
If you have high cholesterol, you and your doctor may be using a number of strategies to lower cholesterol levels. You may be working on your diet, losing weight, exercising more, and taking cholesterol drugs. There are other actions you can take, too, to make sure you stay on the right track.
What to Do When Eating Out
If you're eating healthy food at home to keep cholesterol in check, keep it up when you eat out. Restaurant food can be loaded with saturated fat, calories, and sodium. Even healthy choices may come in supersize portions. Use these tips to stay on track:
Choose broiled, baked, steamed, and grilled foods -- not fried.
Get sauces on the side.
Practice portion control by asking for half your meal to be boxed up before it’s brought out.
Check the Label
A close look at nutrition labels is key for a low-cholesterol, heart-healthy diet.
Check serving sizes. The nutrition info may look good, but does the package contain two servings instead of one?
If it says "whole grain," read the ingredients. Whole wheat or whole grain should be the first one.
Note the saturated fat and cholesterol. Are they within your diet's limits?
Don't Stress Out
Chronic stress can raise blood pressure, adding to your risk of atherosclerosis, which happens when plaque from cholesterol builds up in arteries. And research shows that for some people, stress might directly raise cholesterol levels. Lower your stress levels with relaxation exercises, meditation, or biofeedback. Focus on your breathing, and take deep, refreshing breaths. It's a simple stress buster you can do anywhere.
When Losing Means Winning
Losing weight is one of the best things you can do to help prevent heart disease. Extra pounds make you more likely to get high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. These all affect the lining of your arteries, making them more likely to collect plaque from cholesterol. Losing weight -- especially belly fat -- helps raise HDL "good" cholesterol and reduce LDL "bad" cholesterol.
Follow Your Doctor's Advice
Managing your cholesterol is a lifelong process. See your doctor regularly to keep tabs on your health. Follow your doctor's recommendations on diet, exercise, and medication. Working together, you and your doctor can lower your cholesterol levels and keep your heart going strong.
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THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.