Table 3. Randomized Controlled Screening Trials: Fecal Occult Blood Testing continued...
A study of colonoscopy in women compared the yield of sigmoidoscopy versus colonoscopy. Among 1,463 women, cancer was found in one woman and advanced colonic neoplasia in 72 women or 4.9% (about one-half the prevalence compared with men). The authors focused, however, on RR (i.e., RR of missing an advanced neoplasm) as the outcome, instead of absolute risk of such neoplasms, which is substantially lower in women. In addition, the natural history of advanced neoplasia is not known, so its importance as an outcome in studies of detection is not clear.
Analysis of data from a colonoscopy-based screening program in Warsaw, Poland demonstrated higher rates of advanced neoplasia in men than in women. The predominant age range of participants was 50 to 66 years. Of the 43,042 participants aged 50 to 66 years, advanced neoplasia was detected in 5.9% (5.7% among women with a family history of CRC, 4.3% among women without a family history of CRC, 12.2% among men with a family history of CRC, and 8.0% among men without a family history of CRC). Clinically significant complications requiring medical intervention were rare (0.1%) consisting of five perforations, 13 episodes of bleeding, 22 cardiovascular events, and 11 other events over the entire population of 50,148 screened persons. There were no deaths; however, the author reported that collection of 30-day complications data was not systematic; therefore, the data may not be reliable.
Flat or difficult-to-detect lesions include "serrated polyps," which may be more common in the right colon than they are in the left. The term serrated polyp is currently used to include hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated adenomas, traditional serrated adenomas, and mixed serrated polyps.[56,57] The clinical significance of these lesions is uncertain, because the natural history is so difficult to learn for any polypoid lesion. However, the histologic and molecular characteristics of some serrated lesions suggest possibly important malignant potential (mutations in the BRAF gene may be an early step toward carcinogenesis in serrated polyps). This potential, along with the challenges of detecting flat lesions, may partially account for recent reports of a colonoscopy's lesser protective effect in the right colon compared to the left.