Dec. 7, 1999 (Atlanta) -- Gaining up to 20 pounds over four years can significantly decrease quality of life, according to a study in the Dec. 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The study asked over 40,000 women to rate their ability to perform simple tasks, their experience with bodily pain, and their overall vitality during the study period to determine how weight gain or loss affects quality of life.
The study found that a weight gain of 5-20 pounds resulted in decreased physical functioning and lower overall feelings of vitality. Weight gain also increased feelings of bodily pain.
"We asked simple questions about lifting and carrying groceries, climbing flights of stairs, and their experience with a range of basic functions of daily life," Harvard University assistant professor of medicine Ichiro Kawachi, MD, tells WebMD. The women were asked 36 questions that rated their abilities on a scale from 0 to 100.
"We found that weight gain was among the strongest predictors of declining physical function, stronger than current smoking," says Kawachi, who co-authored the study along with a team of Harvard researchers. "We also found that even with women who started out at a normal range of weight, a moderate gain of 5-19 pounds was still associated with a decline in functioning and energy level."
The study also found that while weight gain and loss were associated with the worst and best quality of life scores, it found that among women who maintained their weight, quality of life remained high.
"The message of even maintaining weight is a very important preventive goal," says Kawachi. "If you can prevent adding a couple of pounds a year, it would translate into a health gain in terms of function, as well as the known risk factors for cardiovascular and related health."
The study cites national statistics showing that over the past 15 years, the average weight of Americans has increased by nearly eight pounds.
Of the patients involved in the study, close to 40% of the women gained between 5 and 20 pounds, approximately 40% maintained their weight, and just over 15% lost between 5 and 20 pounds. The women ranged in age from 47 to 71, with an average age of 58, and were followed for four years.
Franca Alphin, director of the Duke University Diet & Fitness Center, says learning to maintain weight is as important as taking it off.
"The majority of people know how to lose weight but not maintain weight loss," says Alphin. "The challenge to someone losing weight is to maintain weight, and the challenge for people with normal weight is to maintain it." She says part of the center's weight-loss program is defined periods of weight maintenance. "When someone reaches their goal weight, typically other issues in their lives that have been on hold come back, and food can be reinstated as a crutch, so maintaining weight becomes more important."
Alphin advises a daily diet of 1,200-1,500 calories and an ultimate exercise goal of 30 minutes three or four days per week. "The bottom line in dieting is calories. You have to be aware of portions and overconsumption regardless of what foods you choose to eat."
- Gaining 5-20 pounds over four years can significantly decrease quality of life, but those who can maintain their weight have a high quality of life.
- In a study of 40,000 women, weight gain led to decreased physical functioning, lower overall feelings of vitality, and increased feelings of bodily pain.
- Weight gain is among the strongest predictors of declining physical functioning, and even a moderate gain can have negative effects.