Laxatives contain chemicals that help increase stool motility, bulk, and frequency -- thus relieving temporary constipation. But when misused or overused, they can cause problems, including chronic constipation. A healthy diet filled with fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products; regular exercise; and drinking at least eight cups of water daily can help prevent constipation in most people.
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Still, 85% of doctor visits for constipation result in a prescription for a laxative. So it's important to understand how laxatives work and how to use them safely.
Types of Laxatives
There are different types of laxatives that come in pills, capsules, and liquids; suppositories; and enemas. Each type of laxative has specific benefits and possible side effects. Though using a suppository or enema in the rectum is not as convenient (or pleasant) as swallowing a pill, these manually inserted (or squirted) laxatives often work much faster to relieve symptoms.
Bulking Agents (Fiber)
Fiber is the laxative most doctors recommend for normal and slow-transit constipation. Abdominal cramping, bloating, or gas can occur when abruptly increasing or changing your dietary fiber intake. Fiber is naturally available in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (especially wheat bran). Fiber is also available over the counter in Metamucil, Citrucel, Fiber-Lax, Benefiber, Equilactin, and Fibercon.
Fiber works by increasing the water content and bulk of the stool, which helps to move it quickly through the colon. When taking fiber supplements, it's essential to drink enough water to minimize the possibility of flatulence and a possible obstruction.
People who increase their fiber may abruptly suffer abdominal cramping, bloating, or gas. Gradually increase fiber intake. Also, fiber can reduce your body's absorption of some drugs, so always take your medications at least one hour before -- or two hours after -- consuming fiber.
As the name implies, lubricant laxatives make stools slippery. The mineral oil within these products adds a slick layer to the intestine's walls and stops the stool from drying out. Though highly effective, lubricant laxatives are best used as a short-term cure for constipation. Over a longer period, mineral oil can absorb fat-soluble vitamins from the intestine, and decrease certain prescription drugs from being fully absorbed into the body. Do not take mineral oil at the same time as other medications or supplements.