Esophageal Spasm - Topic Overview
What is esophageal spasm?Esophageal spasms are irregular, uncoordinated, and sometimes powerful contractions of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. Normally, contractions of the esophagus are coordinated, moving the food through the esophagus and into the stomach. Esophageal spasms can prevent food from reaching the stomach, leaving it stuck in the ...
Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
An upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is a procedure that allows your doctor to look at the interior lining of your esophagus, your stomach, and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum) through a thin, flexible viewing instrument called an en
Inguinal Hernia - Treatment Overview
Surgery is the only treatment and cure for inguinal hernia. Hernia repair is one of the most common surgeries done in the United States. About 750, 000 people have hernia repairs each year. However, if an inguinal hernia does not cause any symptoms, it ma
Hemorrhoidectomy for Hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove hemorrhoids. You will be given general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia so that you will not feel pain.Incisions are made in the tissue around the hemorrhoid.
Open Inguinal Hernia Repair (Herniorrhaphy, Hernioplasty)
Information on open hernia repair surgery.
Gallstones - What Increases Your Risk
Learn about risk factors for gallstones, including age.
Infrared Photocoagulation for Hemorrhoids
Infrared photocoagulation (also called coagulation therapy) is a medical procedure used to treat small - and medium - sized hemorrhoids. During the procedure, the doctor uses a device that creates an intense beam of infrared light. The light creates scar tissue, cutting off the blood supply to the hemorrhoid. The hemorrhoid dies, and a scar forms on the wall of the anal canal. The scar tissue hol
An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test measures the amount of the enzyme ALP in the blood. ALP is produced primarily in the liver and in bone.
Hemorrhoids - Treatment Overview
Most hemorrhoids can be treated with simple changes to diet and bowel habits. Most do not require surgery or other treatment unless the hemorrhoids are very large and painful.
Gallstones - Prevention
There is no sure way to prevent gallstones. However, you can reduce your risk of forming gallstones that can cause symptoms.Maintain a healthy weightStay close to a healthy weight. Research shows that intentional weight loss (dieting, not weight loss from