In open gallbladder surgery (cholecystectomy), the surgeon removes the gallbladder through a single, large cut (incision) in the abdomen. You will need general anesthesia, and the surgery lasts 1 to 2 hours. The surgeon will make the incision either under the border of the right rib cage or in the middle of the upper part of the abdomen (between the belly button and the end of the breastbone).
After surgery to remove the gallbladder, bile flows from the liver (where it is produced) through the common bile duct and into the small intestine. Because the gallbladder is gone, bile no longer is stored between meals. In most people, this has little or no effect on digestion.
What To Expect After Surgery
Surgery usually involves a hospital stay of 2 to 4 days or longer. Most people can return to their normal activities in 4 to 6 weeks. Open surgery involves more pain afterward and a longer recovery period than laparoscopic surgery.
This surgery leaves a moderately large scar [4 in. (10.2 cm) to 8 in. (20.3 cm) long].
No special diets or other precautions are needed after surgery.
Why It Is Done
Several conditions may lead to surgery to remove the gallbladder. Conditions that may require open rather than laparoscopic surgery include:
- Severe inflammation of the bile duct or gallbladder.
- Inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis).
- High pressure in blood vessels in the liver (portal hypertension). This is caused by cirrhosis of the liver.
- Being in the third trimester of pregnancy.
- A major bleeding disorder or use of medicines to prevent blood clotting (blood thinners or anticoagulants).
- Scar tissue from many previous abdominal surgeries.
- Abnormal anatomy in the abdomen.
In 5 to 10 out of 100 laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries in the United States, the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgical method that requires a larger incision.1 Examples of problems that can require open rather than laparoscopic surgery include unexpected inflammation, scar tissue, injury, or bleeding.
How Well It Works
The possible complications of open gallbladder surgery include:
- Injury to the common bile duct.
- Bile that leaks into the abdominal cavity.
- Excessive bleeding.
- Infection of the surgical wound.
- Injuries to the liver, intestines, or major abdominal blood vessels.
- Blood clots or pneumonia related to the longer recovery period after open surgery.
- Risks of general anesthesia.
What To Think About
Open gallbladder surgery has been done safely for many years.
In most cases, laparoscopic surgery has replaced open surgery to remove the gallbladder. Recovery is much faster and less painful than after open surgery.
Primary Medical ReviewerE. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical ReviewerArvydas D. Vanagunas, MD - Gastroenterology
Current as ofNovember 20, 2015