Chaudhury A, Mashimo H (2012). Orpharyngeal and esophageal motility disorders. In NJ Greenberger et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, 2nd ed., pp. 164–182. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hirano I, Kahrilas PJ (2012). Dysphagia. In DL Longo et al., eds., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th ed., vol. 1, pp. 297–300. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Katz PO, Anand G (2011).
Dysphagia and esophageal obstruction. In ET Bope, et al., eds.,
Conn's Current Therapy
2011, pp. 523–526.
Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Mendelson MH (2011). Esophageal emergencies, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and swallowed foreign bodies. In JE Tintinalli et al., eds., Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7th ed., pp. 548–552. New York: McGraw-Hill.
In this article
This information is produced and provided by the National
Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National
Institute via the Internet web site at http://
.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
November 14, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this