He or she may also take a blood sample and examine your colon with a sigmoidoscope or a colonoscope, a flexible tube with a video camera that is inserted into the rectum. You might also need a barium enema, which coats the intestinal lining so it can be seen on an X-ray.
What Are the Treatments for Constipation?
Most cases of constipation respond to conservative treatment, such as dietary and exercise changes or mild laxatives.
Your doctor will probably start treatment by recommending more fiber or bulk in your diet. Except for fiber or bulking agents, over-the-counter laxatives should be avoided. Your doctor will also encourage you to take adequate time for moving your bowels and not to suppress the urge to have a bowel movement. Increasing exercise is also important if you lead a sedentary lifestyle. For stubborn constipation in older children or adults, the doctor may recommend a non-digestible sugar called lactulose or specially formulated electrolyte solutions. Polyethylene glycol (MiraLAX) is available over the counter for short-term use for constipation in children and adults. Lubiprostone (Amitiza) and linaclotide (Linzess) are prescription drugs for long-term use in chronic constipation in adults and the elderly.
Fecal impaction is a more serious form of constipation that sometimes affects the elderly and disabled. To release hardened material in the rectum, a doctor inserts a gloved finger and manually breaks up the solidified stool. A gentle enema using warm water or mineral oil may also be helpful.