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Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Topic Overview

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Age-related macular degeneration is a disease that causes blurring of your central vision. The blurring happens because of damage to the macula, a small area at the back of the eye camera.gif. The macula helps you see the fine detail in things that your eyes are focusing on.

Macular degeneration makes it harder to do things that require sharp central vision, like reading, driving, and recognizing faces. It does not affect side vision, so it does not lead to complete blindness.

There are two types of macular degeneration—wet and dry. The dry form is by far the most common type. The wet form is much less common, but it happens more quickly and is more severe.

You may have either type in just one eye, but over time you may get it in the other eye too.

Macular degeneration is the result of damage to the nerve cells in the macula. The process that leads to this damage is different for each type.

  • The dry form is a gradual process. As you age, the cells in the macula start to thin and break down, and waste deposits build up in the back of the eye. Over time, this damages the macula.
  • The wet form happens when abnormal blood vessels grow in the back of the eye. These blood vessels break easily and leak blood and fluid under the macula. This can quickly damage the macula and distort your central vision.

Experts are still studying the causes of both forms.

The main symptom of macular degeneration is dim or fuzzy central vision. Objects may look warped or smaller than they really are. You may have a blank or blind spot in the center of your field of vision. As the disease gets worse, you may have trouble with tasks like reading and driving.

If you have the dry form, your vision will probably become blurry slowly. You may have it for several years before it affects your ability to read, drive, and do everyday activities.

Often the first symptom of the wet form is that straight lines look wavy or curved. In the wet form, vision loss happens quickly and can be severe.

A doctor can usually detect macular degeneration by doing a regular eye exam and asking questions about your past health. You may have some vision tests, including an ophthalmoscopy. This test lets your doctor look at the inside of your eye and check for possible signs of this disease, such as drusen. These are yellowish white waste deposits that can build up at the back of the eye.

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