Usually, it's easy to find out what's making kids sick. Common childhood conditions like strep throat and ear infections are pretty simple to diagnose with a throat swab or doctor's exam.
Yet when kids complain of vague symptoms, like fatigue, achiness, and difficulty sleeping, they could be experiencing any one of a number of common illnesses. One condition that's easy to overlook in children and teens is fibromyalgia, which causes pain in the muscles and soft tissues surrounding the joints.
There are several theories about the causes of fibromyalgia, from hormonal disturbances to stress to genetics. While there is no clear consensus about what causes fibromyalgia, most researchers believe fibromyalgia results not from a single event but from a combination of many physical and emotional stressors.
Fibromyalgia can be hard to spot in children because it's much more common in adults. Most of the time fibromyalgia affects women over age 18. Even so, between 1% and 7% of children are thought to have fibromyalgia or similar conditions.
Fibromyalgia is part of a group of conditions collectively known as musculoskeletal pain syndrome (MSPS). In children, fibromyalgia is called juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS). If a child also has arthritis or another disease related to the fibromyalgia, it's called juvenile secondary fibromyalgia syndrome.
Fibromyalgia in Teens and Children: What Causes It?
No one really knows what causes fibromyalgia. The condition tends to run in families, although no gene has been discovered yet. Researchers have linked fibromyalgia to a number of other health conditions, including immune, endocrine, psychological, and biochemical problems.
Just as fibromyalgia in adults is more likely to affect women, child and teen fibromyalgia occurs more often in girls than in boys. Most girls with the condition are diagnosed between ages 13 and 15.
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia in Children and Teens
One of the main symptoms of child fibromyalgia is sore spots on the muscles. These spots hurt when pressure is put on them, which is why they're called "tender points."
To find these points, the doctor will press with his or her thumb on 18 areas that tend to be painful in people with fibromyalgia. Kids who have fibromyalgia will feel tenderness in at least five of these spots. They'll also have been experiencing aches and pains for at least three months.