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Diagnosing Heart Disease With Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT)

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Computed tomography, commonly known as a CT scan, combines multiple X-ray images with the aid of a computer to produce cross-sectional views of the body. Cardiac CT is a heart-imaging test that uses CT technology with or without intravenous (IV) contrast (dye) to visualize the heart anatomy, coronary circulation, and great vessels (which includes the aorta, pulmonary veins, and arteries).

There are several types of CT scans used in the diagnosis of heart disease, including:

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  1. Calcium-score screening heart scan
  2. Coronary CT angiography (CTA)
  3. Total body CT scan

Calcium-Score Screening Heart Scan

The calcium-score screening heart scan is a test used to detect calcium deposits found in atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries. State-of-the-art computerized tomography methods, such as this one, are the most effective way to detect early coronary calcification from atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), before symptoms develop. The amount of coronary calcium has been recognized as a powerful independent predictor of future heart problems and is useful in making lifestyle changes and guiding preventive care to reduce their risk.

Your doctor uses the calcium-score screening heart scan to evaluate risk for future coronary artery disease. If calcium is present, the computer will create a calcium "score" that estimates the extent of coronary artery disease based on the number and density of calcified coronary plaques in the coronary arteries.

Absence of calcium is considered a "negative" exam. However, since there are certain forms of coronary disease, such as "soft plaque" atherosclerosis, that escape detection during this CT scan, it is important to remember that a negative test indicates a low risk, but does not absolutely exclude the possibility of a future cardiac event, such as a heart attack.

The calcium-score screening heart scan takes only a few minutes to perform and does not require injection of intravenous iodine.

Coronary CT Angiography (CTA)

Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a noninvasive heart imaging test currently undergoing rapid development and advancement. High-resolution, 3-dimensional pictures of the moving heart and great vessels are produced during a coronary CTA to determine if either fatty or calcium deposits (plaques) have built up in the coronary arteries.

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