In the battle against atherosclerosis, the stakes remain high. Scientists
have made exciting medical advances, but the disease persists as a leading
cause of illness and death in the United States. This year alone,
atherosclerosis will contribute to about 1.2 million heart attacks among
“While we have very good therapies and tests to identify the disease and
predict the risk, none of them is perfect,” says Stephen Nicholls, MBBS
(bachelor of medicine/surgery), PhD, clinical director...
If you're concerned about atherosclerosis, what should you do? What can you expect at the doctor's office if you ask about an atherosclerosis diagnosis? We'll answer these and other commonly asked questions about diagnosing atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis Warning Signs and Symptoms
What are the symptoms of atherosclerosis? There are three serious diseases caused by atherosclerosis. Each has its own warning signs:
Cerebrovascular disease: Often, a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may happen before a stroke. Difficulty speaking or weakness on one side are symptoms of both strokes and TIAs. The difference: in a TIA, the symptoms go away, usually within an hour, and do not leave permanent brain injury.
Peripheral arterial disease: The legs usually show symptoms of poor circulation first. Pain in the calf muscles when walking (claudication) is the most common symptom. Poor wound healing or decreased pulses in the feet are other signs.
You shouldn't rely on these signs of atherosclerosis, though. By the time symptoms like these show themselves, serious blockages may already be present. Also, heart attacks and strokes can occur without any previous warning signs.
Tests to Diagnose Atherosclerosis
Diseases caused by atherosclerosis are the most common cause of death in the U.S. The one test that can directly show blocked arteries is called angiography. Angiography is an "invasive" test:
A thin tube is inserted inside an artery in the leg or arm.
It is then threaded through the body's maze of branching arteries.
Injected dye shows arteries -- and any blockages -- on a monitor.
Angiography involves some risk. Serious complications occur rarely, but it's too high a risk for people who aren't likely to have blockages.
Instead, expert groups developed a system to separate people into risk groups. People can then be tested appropriately, according to risk level. Low-risk people receive risk-free testing. Angiography is usually reserved for people already at high risk of atherosclerosis.