If you're worried that you might have been exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -- the virus that causes AIDS -- it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Although the prospect of being diagnosed with the disease can be scary, today you can live a long and full life with HIV, especially if you start treatment early. Knowing you are infected can also help you take precautions so that you don't pass the virus to other people.
Several different tests are used to diagnose HIV infection. Other tests are used to select and monitor treatments in people who are living with HIV. This article covers both types of HIV tests.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus. It is very common, infecting up to 80% of people in the U.S. by age 40. Normally, it hides out in the body. This is not a problem for most people because a healthy immune system can easily control it. However, it can cause severe disease in people with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). It's able to take advantage of a weakened immune system, which is why it's called an opportunistic infection. The most common illness CMV causes is retinitis, an eye infection...
You are at risk for HIV infection and should be tested for it if:
You’ve had several sexual partners.
You had unprotected sex with someone who is or could be HIV-positive.
You have used injected drugs or steroids or shared needles or other equipment during drug use.
You have had any sexually transmitted disease, including herpes, hepatitis, or TB.
You have had sex for drugs or money.
You’ve had sex with someone who has a history of any of the above -- or with someone whose sexual history you don’t know.
There are several types of tests that screen blood (and sometimes saliva) to see if you are infected with HIV.
Newer tests can detect the presence of HIV antigen, a protein, up to 20 days earlier than standard tests. This helps prevent spread of the virus to others and means an earlier start for treatment. It is done with a pinprick to the finger.
Here's a look at available HIV tests:
Standard tests. These blood tests check for HIV antibodies. Your body makes antibodies in response to the HIV infection. These tests can't detect HIV in the blood soon after infection because it takes time for your body to make these antibodies. It generally takes two to 8 weeks for your body to produce antibodies, but in some cases it can take up to six months.
In standard tests, a small sample of your blood is drawn and sent to a lab for testing. Some of the standard tests use urine or fluids that are collected from the mouth to screen for antibodies.