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Prehypertension Tied to Increased Risk of Stroke

Study: Even Slightly High Blood Pressure Is Associated With Significant Stroke Risk
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WebMD Health News
Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD

Sept. 28, 2011 -- Having even slightly high blood pressure may substantially increase a person’s risk of having a stroke, new research shows.

The research, a review of 12 studies that included more than half a million people, found that adults who had prehypertension -- meaning systolic blood pressure (the top number) between 120 and 139 or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) between 80 and 89  -- had a 55% increased risk of having a stroke compared to adults whose blood pressure fell within the normal range.

According to the American Heart Association, blood pressure is the most powerful determinant of a person’s stroke risk.

Researchers have long observed that people with normal blood pressure have about half the risk of having a stroke over the course of their lives as those who have high blood pressure. But it was less clear what having prehypertension might mean for heart and blood vessel health , or whether it should even be treated.

“Across the board, whether we looked at race, ethnicity, or sex, there was this higher risk of stroke if you were diagnosed with prehypertension,” says researcher Bruce Ovbiagele, MD, a neuroscience professor and director of the Stroke Center at the University of California at San Diego.

The risks associated with prehypertension were even higher, however, for young and middle-aged adults, and for those who fell in the upper end of the prehypertensive range.

The study found that adults younger than 65 with prehypertension had a 68% increased risk of stroke. And those with a systolic blood pressure between 130 and 139 or a diastolic blood pressure between  85 and 89 had a nearly 80% increased risk of stroke.

Prehypertension didn’t increase the risk of stroke risk in seniors, probably because many adults who reach that age have other risk factors, including age and related health conditions, that come into play.

“It was interesting to confirm that there is this higher risk, but it was even more interesting to be able to narrow it down to certain types of individuals who seem to be at exceptionally high risk of having a stroke if they have prehypertension,” Ovbiagele says.

The study is published in the journal Neurology.

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