Cigars, Pipes No Safer Than Cigarettes
Smoking Cigars and Pipes Harm Lung Function and Lead to COPD, Study Finds
Feb. 16, 2010 -- Switching from cigarettes to cigars or pipes isn’t going to
do your lungs any favors. A new study suggests that pipe and cigar smoking may
be more harmful than thought.
Researchers say cigarette smoking has declined in recent years, and pipe and
cigar smoking have increased, partly because of a misperception that pipes and
cigars are safer than cigarettes.
But the study shows that pipe and cigar smoking damages lung function in a
manner similar to cigarettes and is associated with chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a progressive disease that causes damage to
the airways and makes it more difficult to breathe. It is the fourth leading
cause of death in the U.S.
Although cigarette smoking is a well-known cause of COPD, experts say few
studies have looked at whether alternative forms of smoking, such as pipes and
cigars, cause the same changes in the lungs that lead to COPD. These results
suggest that indeed is the case.
“Smoke, whether from cigarette, pipe, or cigar, will result in absorption of
one of the most addictive chemicals known, nicotine, and will produce
measurable lung damage,” Michael B. Steinberg, MD, MPH, of the Robert Wood
Johnson Medical School, writes in an editorial that accompanies the study in
the Annals of Internal Medicine.
“The results are especially important because the tobacco industry is
challenged by decreasing cigarette sales and is actively promoting product
substitution and concurrent use as an alternative to complete tobacco
Pipes and Cigars Hurt Lung Function
In the study, researchers looked at the effects of cigar and pipe smoking on
changes in lung function in 3,528 people aged 48 to 90 who were participants in
a study about heart disease risk factors.
The participants answered a survey about their past and present smoking
habits, and researchers evaluated their lung function and cotinine levels.
Cotinine is a byproduct of nicotine and is detected in the urine.
The results showed those participants who did not smoke cigarettes but did
smoke cigars or pipes were twice as likely as never smokers to have decreased
lung function. Those who smoked cigars or pipes in addition to cigarettes also
had a higher risk of lung function impairment consistent with the development
Researchers found that pipe and cigar smoking was also associated with
increased cotinine levels.
“Some pipe and cigar smokers say they do not inhale, or inhale less, than
cigarette smokers. The elevated cotinine levels in the current study, however,
belie this notion and provide a biological measure of nicotine exposure,” write
researchers R. Graham Barr, MD, DrPH, assistant professor of medicine and
epidemiology at Columbia University in New York City, and colleagues.