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Prostate Cancer: Glossary


Combined hormonal therapy or maximal androgen deprivation: a treatment method that combines suppression of testosterone production and androgen production by the adrenal glands. (See also: hormone therapy.)

Contraindication: a factor that makes use of a drug or other treatment inadvisable.

Cryobank: a place where cells, sperm, or embryos are frozen and then stored.

Cryopreservation: the process of freezing and storing sperm or embryos for later use.

Cystectomy: removal of the bladder.

Cystitis: an inflammation or infection of the bladder. When it is due to bacteria it is referred to as a urinary tract infection. When caused by inflammation it is called interstitial cystitis.

Cystoscopy: also called cystourethroscopy, a procedure where a tube is inserted into the urethra through the opening at the end of the penis. It allows the doctor to visually examine the complete length of the urethra and the bladder for polyps, strictures, abnormal growths, and other problems.

Cystoscope: tube-like device containing a light and viewing lens. A cystoscope is inserted into the urethra to examine the urethra, bladder, and prostate.

Digital rectal exam (DRE): a screening test used to detect prostate cancer in its early stages. Because the prostate is an internal organ, the physician cannot look at it directly. Since the prostate lies in front of the rectum, the doctor can feel it by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum. He or she will feel the prostate for hard, lumpy, or abnormal areas and to estimate whether the prostate is enlarged.

Dysuria: painful urination.

Ejaculate: fluid and sperm (semen) ejected from the penis during male orgasm.

Ejaculation: discharging semen from the penis during sexual arousal and orgasm.

Ejaculatory duct: tube in the body where sperm are deposited into the urethra.

Electrovaporation: a surgical procedure that uses electrical current to destroy excess prostate tissue.

Enuresis: involuntary urination.

Epididymis: a long tube-like coiled structure where sperm collect, mature, and pass. The epididymis is located above and behind the testicles. Matured sperm leave the epididymis through the vas deferens when they are ejaculated or reabsorbed by the body.

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