Gender -- being male or female -- is a basic element that helps make up an individual's personality and sense of self. Gender dysphoria (formerly known as gender identity disorder) is a condition in which a male or female feels a strong identification with the opposite sex.
Not conforming to the social features related to one's biological gender is not in itself a disorder. Rather, a person with gender dysphoria experiences great discomfort regarding his or her actual anatomic gender. People with gender dysphoria may act and present themselves as members of the opposite sex and may express a desire to alter their bodies. The disorder affects an individual's self-image, and can impact the person's mannerisms, behavior, and dress. Individuals who are committed to altering their physical appearance through cosmetics, hormones, and in some cases, surgery are known as transsexuals.
The couple arrived at my office with a common problem. They had an
8-month-old and a 3-year-old. The husband was starved for physical contact and
had been since baby No. 1 was born. But between the nursing infant and the
clinging toddler, the wife was getting just about as much physical contact as
she could stand.
Over the course of several sessions, I explored what might be affecting
their sex life by asking them some gentle questions. Could the mother have
postpartum depression? Was the...
The exact cause of gender dysphoria is not known, but several theories exist. These theories suggest that the disorder may be caused by genetic (inherited) abnormalities, hormone imbalances during fetal and childhood development, defects in normal human bonding and child rearing, or a combination of these factors.
How Common Is Gender Dysphoria?
Gender dysphoria is a rare condition that affects children and adults. It can be evident in early childhood. In fact, most people recognize that they have a gender identity problem before they reach adolescence. The condition occurs more often in males than in females.
What Are the Symptoms of Gender Dysphoria?
Children with gender dysphoria often display the following symptoms:
Expressed desire to be the opposite sex (including passing oneself off as the opposite sex and calling oneself by an opposite sex name).
Disgust with their own genitals. Boys may pretend not to have a penis. Girls may fear growing breasts and menstruating and may refuse to sit when urinating. They also may bind their breasts to make them less noticeable.
Belief that they will grow up to become the opposite sex.
Rejection by their peer groups.
Dressing and behaving in a manner typical of the opposite sex (for example, a female wearing boy's underwear).
Withdrawal from social interaction and activity.
Feelings of isolation, depression, and anxiety.
Adults with gender dysphoria often display the following symptoms:
Desire to live as a person of the opposite sex
Desire to be rid of their own genitals
Dressing and behaving in a manner typical of the opposite sex
Withdrawal from social interaction and activity
Feelings of isolation, depression, and anxiety
How Is Gender Dysphoria Diagnosed?
Gender dysphoria typically is diagnosed by a trained mental health professional (psychiatrist or psychologist). A thorough medical history and psychological exam are performed to rule out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, or psychosis. Gender dysphoria is diagnosed when the evaluation confirms the persistent desire to be the opposite sex.