In the 2000 movie Bounce, Gwyneth Paltrow's character,
Abby, explains that she really isn't a smoker at heart, but has started puffing
on cigarettes to help her get off the nicotine gum to which she's become
addicted. The line invariably gets a laugh. But for people who feel that they
really have become hooked on nicotine gum, Abby's quirky observation may hit
too close to home.
In fact, 1.5-2 million Americans try the nicotine-laced gum
each year (it was originally introduced in the U.S. in 1984). And while many,
thanks to the gum, have successfully kicked the tobacco habit, some seem to
have weaned themselves from one nicotine habit only to pick up a new (albeit
less risky) one.
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Oral Cancer Screening; Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment; and Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit are also available.
Who is at Risk?
People who use tobacco in any of the commonly available forms (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco) or have high alcohol intake are at elevated risk of oral cancer; and they are at particularly high risk if they use both tobacco and alcohol. People who chew betel quid (whether mixed with tobacco or...
Most users of nicotine gum -- now sold over-the-counter under
the Nicorette brand as well as several generic names -- see it as a short-term
measure. GlaxoSmithKline, marketers of Nicorette, advises people to "stop
using the nicotine gum at the end of 12 weeks," and to talk to a doctor if
you "still feel the need" to use it. But that guideline hasn't kept
some people from chomping on it for many months and even years. In an addiction forum on the
Internet, one gum user posted a familiar message describing her 10-year-long
habit of chewing between 9 and 11 pieces of Nicorette per day, and asking for
"any suggestions as to how to get off the gum."
In a recent report evaluating data collected by ACNielsen,
researchers concluded that 5-9%of nicotine gum users relied on it for longer
than the recommended three months. About half that many were chewers for six or
Nevertheless, if there are serious health risks from this kind
of chronic gum chomping, they haven't been identified yet. "I've
encountered people using the gum for 15 years," says John Hughes, MD,
professor of psychiatry at the University of Vermont in Burlington, and
spokesperson for the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. "And
their main complaint is the cost of the gum." The price tag for using
Nicorette gum is about the same as a pack-and-a-half-a-day smoking habit.
In some published studies, people have used nicotine gum up to
five years, according to Richard Hurt, MD, professor of medicine and director
of the Nicotine Dependence Center at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.
"As far as we now know," he says, "there are no heart or vascular
problems associated with long-term use."
Cigarette smoking itself, of course, can cause serious,
life-threatening health problems. But the nicotine in the gum is delivered
slowly through the mucous membranes in the mouth, and at much lower levels than
the quick-hit surge of nicotine that occurs when puffing on cigarettes. At the
same time, the gum does not contain any of the cancer-causing substances
present in cigarettes.