June 30, 2011 -- Mobile phones could hold the key to people giving up smoking after a study involving sending motivational and supportive text messages to smokers doubled quit rates after six months.
The "txt2stop" study is the first to verify quit rates using biochemical testing. It shows that smokers are twice as likely to quit their habit when receiving motivational text messages compared with those receiving standard texts.
The study published in The Lancet is by Caroline Free, PhD, of the Clinical Trials Research Unit of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and colleagues. It was partly funded by the U.K. Medical Research Council.
In a news release, Free says, "Text messages are a very convenient way for smokers to receive support to quit. People described txt2stop as like having a 'friend' encouraging them or an 'angel on their shoulder.' It helped people resist the temptation to smoke."
Researchers randomly assigned 5,800 U.K. smokers who were willing to quit to either the txt2stop group (2,915 smokers) or to a comparison group receiving only non-motivational texts (2,885 smokers).
The txt2stop group received five text messages a day for the first five weeks and then three per week for the next 26 weeks, with a personalized system that also allowed people to receive instant messages at times of need by texting the word "crave" or "lapse."
Motivational texts included encouragement up to the actual quit day, advice on keeping weight off while quitting, and help dealing with cravings. For example, the craving text read: "Cravings last less than five minutes on average. To help distract yourself, try sipping a drink slowly until the craving is over."
Participants who texted "lapse" would receive a text that read: "Don't feel bad or guilty if you've slipped. You've achieved a lot by stopping for a while. Slip-ups can be a normal part of the quitting process. Keep going, you can do it!"
Non-motivational texts simply thanked people for their participation, requested confirmation of contact details, or said a range of other things not connected to smoking itself. For example: "Being part of this will help others in the future. Thanks for your help!" or "Only four more weeks to go until completion of the study!"
Abstinence from smoking was confirmed by testing the levels of cotinine (a chemical in tobacco) found in participants' saliva.