Women smokers often have a tougher time quitting than men, and scientists
are now figuring out why. One study, published December 1999 in the journal
Nicotine & amp; Tobacco Research, found that men are more apt to be
physically driven by nicotine, in terms of the satisfied feeling they get from
smoking, whereas women smoke to reap psychological rewards, such as spending
time with friends who also smoke.
As researchers continue to investigate the role gender plays in nicotine
addiction, early studies, such as the one above, offer clues women smokers can
use today to successfully quit.
By Sarah Mahoney
How to quit nitpicking
It's not even noon on a Sunday, and I've been biting my tongue all morning.
When my husband sat down to Web surf two hours ago, I resisted the urge to
remind him that he had promised to clean the basement. I held my tongue again
when our 13-year-old trashed the kitchen while creating his "it's due
tomorrow!" science project. And I even managed to stifle myself when my
teenage daughter left a plate in the sink instead of reaching 18 inches...
Time your quitting to coincide with the end of your period. Research
suggests that women who stop smoking 15 days after or before menstruating have
more success than those who quit in the latter half of their cycle. The idea
that PMS aggravates withdrawal symptoms, such as irritability and depression,
may not be a surprise to those who suffer from the monthly malady. But if
quitting by the calendar ups the odds of success, it's certainly worth a
Accept that a little weight gain isn't the end of the world. It's true,
many women put on 5 pounds when they kick the habit, but don't let that keep
you from trying. Rest assured those few extra pounds -- which tend to disappear
within a year of quitting -- are a lot better for your body than smoking.
Don't diet while quitting. The double dose of deprivation is a one-way
ticket to failure. Instead, focus on eating three healthy meals a day and
curbing snacks. Often women trying to quit see their weight begin to spiral out
of control. It's the snacking that gets most women, not bigger meals, says
Kenneth Perkins, professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh, PhD,
an expert on women and smoking. Stock your kitchen with low-calorie munchies
that mimic the action of smoking, such as carrot and celery sticks.
Seek support. Although few studies address how men and women quitters
differ in their need for support, Perkins' experience shows women do benefit
from a shoulder to lean on. "Women seem to rely more heavily than men on
informal social ties for all things," he says. And support isn't limited to
a spouse, partner, or friend. Some successful quitters take comfort in chat
rooms designed for ex-smokers.
Try nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), such as the nicotine patch, gum, or
nasal spray. The patch delivers a steady stream of nicotine automatically
through the skin and into the blood. Easy to use, the patch is a popular choice
for both men and women. Those who give in to cravings and smoke while using the
patch, however, put themselves at risk for heart attacks (from a potential
nicotine overdose). Nicotine gum helps to alleviate cigarette cravings by
releasing nicotine into the bloodstream when chewed. The nasal spray, which is
similar to a decongestant spray, can be used when cravings strike to quickly
send nicotine into the bloodstream via nasal tissues. Many women try more than
one NRT options before settling on the method that's best for them.
But don't abandon quitting altogether if a nicotine replacement therapy
doesn't work for you. Research shows that women are fueled more by "smoking
cues" than by the nicotine itself. In other words, you're more likely to
crave a cigarette if you get a whiff of smoke from your favorite brand or if
you go out for drinks with friends who smoke. Make a list of things that spark
your cravings and try to avoid them.
Get moving (preferably at a pace that precludes smoking). Adding a fast
walk or a brisk swim to your daily routine not only staves off nicotine
cravings but also burns excess calories. Try funneling the money you save from
cigarettes (which can be sizable if you sit down and do the math) into a gym
membership. If smoking left you feeling lethargic, don't overdo it. Perkins
recommends walking one or two miles a day to start. Soon you'll start to feel
your stamina increase.
Talk with your doctor about prescription cessation aids. Drugs such as
Zyban and Wellbutrin are antidepressants that ward off nicotine cravings. Both
can be combined with NRTs to boost the likelihood of success. Women smokers are
twice as likely as men to have a history of depression, according to a
January/April 1996 review article in the Journal of the American Medical
Women's Association. Therefore, prescription antidepressants can be
especially helpful, says Perkins. Zyban also helps prevent weight gain, which
makes it an appealing option for many women, he says.
The most important thing is not to get discouraged, especially if success
doesn't come immediately. Quitting is a combination of timing and technique.
Don't hesitate to try several different cessation methods before settling on
one or a combination. Also, consider joining a local smoking cessation program
or study. Both will enhance your odds of success.