Nearly 339 million people worldwide have asthma. But only a small slice of that group has what’s considered “severe asthma.” Here’s what sets apart severe asthma from regular asthma with severe attacks.
Asthma falls into categories that range from intermittent (meaning no more than 2 days of wheezing and coughing per week) to persistent. If it’s persistent, the condition can be further classified: either mild, moderate, or severe.
Severe asthma is the least common type. Symptoms happen every day and are frequent enough to affect daily life and sleep. Left untreated, lungs function at less than 60% of their normal level.
Treatment involves high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a second medicine to control symptoms. Both can bring side effects. Sometimes severe asthma can remain uncontrolled even when treated.
Not everyone’s severe asthma has the same traits. Differences can include:
- How well your lungs work
- Which symptoms you have
- How young you are when you get it
- Which medications you use
If you have severe asthma, it’s important to take care of yourself and to control your disease. See your doctor regularly, fill your prescriptions, and take your meds as directed.
Try to live a healthy lifestyle, too. Both smoking and obesity have been linked to severe asthma.
If you find your symptoms are becoming worse, or they happen more often, biologic therapies might help. These meds target molecules in your body, like certain white blood cells, for example, that are involved in asthma.
Ask your doctor about them.
Severe asthma attacks, on the other hand, are medical emergencies. During these, your shortness of breath won’t go away with treatment.
About half of severe attacks are caused by upper respiratory infections. Not taking your asthma medicines or not seeing your doctor often enough can lead to attacks, as can allergic reactions to:
- Specific drugs
- Some animals
- Smoke or other irritants
Signs of a severe attack include:
The symptoms don’t always come on suddenly. They can build up over the course of days.
If you think you’re having a severe attack, take it seriously:
- Sit upright.
- Breathe steadily.
- Stay calm.
- Use your rescue inhaler every 30 to 60 seconds, up to 10 times.
- Call 911 if you don’t have your inhaler on hand, or you feel like the inhaler either isn’t working, or your symptoms are getting worse.