Breath-Holding Spells in Children: What to Know

If your young child reacts to sudden pain or upset by not breathing, turning blue or pale, and then fainting, she may have just had a breath-holding spell.

It can seem scary, but usually you don’t need to worry. Also called breath-holding attacks, these spells are somewhat common and can happen in healthy children. They can look like seizures, but they’re not. The spells don’t hurt the children, and many outgrow them by age 6 or 7.

Breath-holding spells come in two types. With cyanotic spells, a child’s face turns blue. With pallid spells, she becomes pale. Cyanotic spells are more common.

Causes

Often, a breath-holding attack starts with crying in reaction to pain, fear, or anger.

If your child has a cyanotic spell, she’s probably upset or frustrated about something. Maybe she got into trouble or wants something she can’t have. She’ll cry, exhale very hard, but not breathe in again. Her face, especially around her lips, quickly will turn blue, and she’ll pass out.

With a pallid spell, she likely felt a sudden pain or scare. She may have fallen backwards and bumped her head or been spooked when someone snuck up behind her. She may shout in hurt or surprise, or she may open her mouth to shout but no sounds comes out. She’ll then stop breathing, color will drain from her face, and she’ll be out.

In both cases, your child will start to breathe again within a minute and come to on her own. She may be tired, but other than that, she’ll be her normal self.

Your child doesn’t have these spells on purpose. It’s her body’s involuntary response to a sudden event. The reflexes change your child’s breathing pattern, heart rate, and blood pressure levels, which make your child faint.

Symptoms

After your child passes out, she’ll lie limply on the floor. She may also:

  • Arch her back
  • Become stiff
  • Jerk her body a few times
  • Turn sweaty
  • Wet herself

She may or may not gasp when she starts to breathe again.

Continued

Diagnosis

After your child’s first breath-holding spell, take her to her doctor to rule out any health problems.

There are no tests to confirm a breath-holding spell. Your pediatrician usually can diagnose it after hearing what happened. They’ll want to know what set it off, how your child looked, and how she started to breathe again.

Rarely, the pediatrician may refer your child to a heart doctor, called a cardiologist, or to a neurologist, who specializes in the brain and the nervous system, to check for any underlying causes.

Treatment

If your child has one breath-holding spell, she’ll likely have more. Some children have them several times a day, while others may have just one in a year.

There are no drugs or other treatments for these spells. Some studies suggest that anemia, or low levels of red blood cells, may be a culprit and that iron supplements may help. But more research is needed. The best thing to do is let your child lie on her side while she’s out. That helps the blood flow to her brain and gives her a chance to recover more quickly.

In very rare cases, a child may not start breathing again after 1 minute. If this happens, call 911. If she’s still not breathing after 3 minutes, start CPR.

Prevention

Your child’s doctor may teach you how to spot triggers that cause the spells, so you may prevent them. Sometimes, blowing hard on your baby’s face can interrupt a breath-holding spell. But this won’t work for every baby, and it may not work for older children.

If temper tantrums set off breath-holding attacks, your doctor may help you figure out a new way to set limits for your child. Take care not to give in to your child just to avoid a spell. This can lead to behavior problems that may last even after she’s outgrown her breath-holding spells.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Renee A. Alli, MD on December 15, 2017

Sources

SOURCES:

Child Neurology Foundation: “Breath-holding spells.”

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: “Iron supplementation for breath-holding attacks in children.”

Canadian Family Physician: “Breath-holding spells in infants.”

Nemours Foundation: “Breath-holding spells.”

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