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The American College of Gastroenterology: "The Dangers of Aspirin & NSAIDs."
The University of Chicago: "Treatment and Therapy – Pain Medication."
WebMD Medical Reference: "Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers."
Family Doctor.org: "Fever in Infants and Children."
The Merck Manual of Geriatrics: "Considerations for Effective Pharmacotherapy," "Introduction: Over-the-Counter Drugs."
MedicineNet: "Tip Sheet: Ulcers and Pain Relievers."
WebMD News: "Painkiller Risk: High Blood Pressure."
MedicineNet: "Ibuprofen," "Drug-Induced Liver Disease," "Acetaminophen."
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: "GI Risk and Risk Factors of NSAIDs."
The New York Times: "When Pain Relievers Cause Bleeding."
Johns Hopkins Health Alert: NSAIDs and the Risk of Stomach Woes."
The American Journal of Medicine: "NSAID Use and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease."
American Family Physician: "Acute Renal Failure," "Preventive Strategies in Chronic Liver Disease: Part 1," "Clinically Significant Drug Interactions."
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC): "Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkillers and the Kidneys)."
ScienceDaily: "Most NSAIDs Raise Risk of Death After Heart Attack."
Harvard Health Publications: "Cardiovascular Side Effects of NSAID Painkillers."
Mayo Clinic: "Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks." "Aspirin Allergy: What are the Symptoms?" Mayo Clinic: "Cough and Cold Combinations."
Nielsen G. British Medical Journal, 2001; vol 322: pp 266-27.
American College of Rheumatology: "NSAIDs."
Isenberg, D. Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: "Reye Syndrome."
UpToDate: "Nonselective NSAIDs: Adverse cardiovascular effects."
American Heart Association: Circulation: "Use of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs : An Update for Clinicians: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association."
Reviewed by Carol DerSarkissian on April 29, 2016
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THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
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