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The American College of Gastroenterology: "The Dangers of Aspirin & NSAIDs."
The University of Chicago: "Treatment and Therapy – Pain Medication."
WebMD Medical Reference: "Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers."
Family Doctor.org: "Fever in Infants and Children."
The Merck Manual of Geriatrics: "Considerations for Effective Pharmacotherapy," "Introduction: Over-the-Counter Drugs."
MedicineNet: "Tip Sheet: Ulcers and Pain Relievers."
WebMD News: "Painkiller Risk: High Blood Pressure."
MedicineNet: "Ibuprofen," "Drug-Induced Liver Disease," "Acetaminophen."
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology: "GI Risk and Risk Factors of NSAIDs."
The New York Times: "When Pain Relievers Cause Bleeding."
Johns Hopkins Health Alert: NSAIDs and the Risk of Stomach Woes."
The American Journal of Medicine: "NSAID Use and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease."
American Family Physician: "Acute Renal Failure," "Preventive Strategies in Chronic Liver Disease: Part 1," "Clinically Significant Drug Interactions."
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC): "Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkillers and the Kidneys)."
ScienceDaily: "Most NSAIDs Raise Risk of Death After Heart Attack."
Harvard Health Publications: "Cardiovascular Side Effects of NSAID Painkillers."
Mayo Clinic: "Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks." "Aspirin Allergy: What are the Symptoms?" Mayo Clinic: "Cough and Cold Combinations."
Nielsen G. British Medical Journal, 2001; vol 322: pp 266-27.
American College of Rheumatology: "NSAIDs."
Isenberg, D. Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: "Reye Syndrome."
UpToDate: "Nonselective NSAIDs: Adverse cardiovascular effects."
American Heart Association: Circulation: "Use of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs : An Update for Clinicians: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association."
Reviewed by Nayana Ambardekar, MD on May 30, 2020
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