How-To Guide for a Healthier Body

You know you need vitamins for good health, but which ones and how much? Here's a rundown of the most important vitamins and minerals. Part 1 of a series.

From the WebMD Archives

In a classic I Love Lucy, Lucy lands the plum role of "Vitameatavegamin girl" and attempts to hawk a tonic with healthy amounts of vitamins, meat, vegetables, minerals (and ample alcohol) all wrapped up in one power drink.

During rehearsal, Lucy drinks, and drinks, the vile tasting liquid. But by the end of the shoot and due to the high alcoholic content, Lucy begins to get drunk, slur her lines, and even begins to enjoy the taste.

For better or for worse, there is no such thing as Vitameatavegamin, but multiple vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other supplements are readily available in tonic, pill, and many other forms.

But what do you really need to be healthier? And how much do you need? And how can you make sure that you are getting it? For starters, WebMD compiled an expert-approved list of the top five healthiest nutrients and how to get them.

Boning Up on Calcium

Hands down, calcium (which comes from foods including low-fat dairy products and calcium-fortified foods) is essential for a healthy body, says Molly Kimball, RD, a nutritionist at the Ochsner Clinic's Elmwood Fitness Center in New Orleans. The daily goal typically ranges from about 1,200 to 1,500 milligrams (mg) a day.

"If you are not getting enough calcium through your diet, supplements are a good idea," she says. How do you know? consider that an 8 oz glass of milk or calcium-fortified juice or a cup of yogurt contains about 300 mg.

So take a look at what you are normally eating, and if you are not in the range, consider a supplement, Kimball tells WebMD.

"The obvious thing that calcium does is help to build strong bones and increase bone density," she says. While getting enough calcium is important for everyone, people who are still growing and people who are at increased risk of osteoporosis really need their daily doses of this mineral, she says.

Managing Your Magnesium

When Carolyn Dean, ND, MD, of City Island, N.Y., was researching for her latest book, The Miracle of Magnesium, "most doctors said if you could get a person to only take one supplement, make it magnesium."

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For sure, those are some fighting words. The Daily Value (DV) for magnesium is around 400 mg. However, most magnesium researchers say we need two to three times this amount, especially for people who are magnesium-deficient, says Dean.

Although doctors may recommend higher doses of magnesium supplementation for specific conditions, the Institute of Medicine states that the upper intake of supplemental magnesium for healthy adults is 350 mg. There isn’t an upper limit tied to dietary magnesium. Make sure to talk to your doctor about using supplements as they can interfere with some drugs and be unsafe in people with certain conditions or taking certain medications.

According to Dean, as much as 80% of the population is deficient in magnesium because "our soil is magnesium-depleted, cooking and processing removes it from food, and a processed-food diet and many prescription medications causes it to be lost in the urine," says Dean. Magnesium has been linked to a variety of conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis.

Kimball agrees with Dean. "Magnesium also helps with calcium absorption, so you need it to help build healthy bones," she says. Magnesium is harder to get through foods, so supplements are usually necessary. Magnesium-rich foods do include almonds, peanuts, brown rice, dark green vegetables, and cereals like oat bran and shredded wheat.

Buff Up Your Baseline With a Multivitamin

One way to make sure that you get at least the minimum amount of all your vitamins and minerals is to take a multivitamin every day. "There is quite a bit of evidence that multivitamins are important for general health, immunity, and well-being," says clinical nutrition specialist Frederic Vagnini, MD, medical director of Pulse Anti-Aging Center in Scarsdale, N.Y.

That's good counsel, says Victoria Shanta-Retelny, RD, a registered dietitian at Northwestern Memorial Wellness Institute in Chicago. "Most people don't get adequate amounts of vitamins in their diet, and processed foods lose vitamins with processing, but multivitamins set you up for a healthy baseline without toxic levels of these vitamins."

Vagnini adds: "Vitamins were traditionally useful in preventing deficiency disease which we don't really see so much in this country," he says, "We don't see things like scurvy."

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B Good to Yourself

B vitamins -- which include thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, B-6, B-12, and folate (folic acid) -- are key to overall health, Vagnini says. "We now know that homocysteine is an important risk factor for heart disease and stroke; it is just as important as cholesterol," he says. According to the American Heart Association, homocysteine is an amino acid that has been linked to an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and blood vessel disease. It may damage the inner lining of arteries and promote blood clots, but researchers are still not sure exactly how it affects disease risk.

But homocysteine levels are strongly influenced by diet, and several studies have found that higher blood levels of B vitamins are related, at least partly, to lower concentrations of homocysteine. The adult Daily Values for the B vitamins are: folate, 400 micrograms or more in pregnancy; B-6, 1.3-1.7 milligrams; and B-12, 2.4 micrograms. Today, cereals, breads, and other grain products are fortified with extra folate. Also fruits and vegetables like spinach, oranges, broccoli, and asparagus have high levels of folate. Check your multivitamin to see how it stacks up with B-6 and B-12.

Don't Forget the D

Vitamin D, aka the sunshine vitamin because your body can make it in response to sunlight, is often overlooked today. "More people are staying out of the sun and as a result are becoming deficient in vitamin D and setting themselves up for fractures," Shanta-Retelney says.

Vitamin D helps your bones properly use calcium. "The sun is our most natural source of vitamin D, so 15 minutes of sunlight per day with sunscreen is a good idea," she says. Dietary sources include dairy products including milk, yogurt, and cheese that are fortified with vitamin D, cod liver oil, catfish, sardines, tuna, and egg yolks. Depending on your age, aim for 200 to 600 international units of vitamin D each day.

WebMD Feature Reviewed by Kathleen M. Zelman, MPH, RD, LD on August 28, 2007

Sources

SOURCES: Molly Kimball, RD, a nutritionist, Ochsner Clinic's Elmwood Fitness, New Orleans. Victoria Shanta-Retelny, RD, LD, Northwestern Memorial Wellness Institute, Chicago. Carolyn Dean, ND, MD, City Island, N.Y. Frederic Vagnini, MD, FACS, medical director, Pulse Anti-Aging Center, Scarsdale, N.Y.

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