It's a type of bacteria that can make you sick. It infects about 1.35 million people in the U.S. every year. Salmonella can be quite serious, especially for those who are very old, very young, or already sick. The illness sends thousands of people to the hospital each year. Sometimes it's life-threatening.
How You Get It From Food
You most often get salmonella when you eat or drink something that has the bacteria in it. It's more common in food that comes from animals, like eggs, beef, and poultry. But soil or water can contaminate fruits and vegetables, too. You also can move the bacteria from one food to another with your hands or with knives, boards, platters, and other kitchen tools. You can get the infection if you don't cook certain foods well enough.
How You Get It From Animals
Salmonella bacteria live in the gut of certain types of animals, especially:
Birds, such as chickens and turkeys
Amphibians, such as frogs, toads, and salamanders
Reptiles, such as snakes, lizards, and turtles
If poop from these animals gets on your hands, you might infect yourself or others. Human poop can spread the disease, too, which is why handwashing is so important after you go to the bathroom.
Who Gets It
Salmonella doesn't sicken everyone who gets the bacteria into their body. Kids under age 5 are most likely to get it, and about a third of all cases happen in kids 4 or younger. Babies who aren't breastfed are more likely to get it. Certain medications, like those that lessen stomach acid, could also raise your chances of infection.
You typically get diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. You also may have headache, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms usually begin 6 hours to 6 days after infection and last 4-7 days. You usually feel better in about a week, though it can take a few months for your bowel movements to return to normal. Sometimes infections spread to your blood, bones, joints, brain, or nervous system and cause long-term symptoms affecting those areas.
When to Call the Doctor
Check with your doctor if you notice:
Blood in your bowel movement
Diarrhea with a fever more than 102 F
Diarrhea that doesn't get better after 3 days
Dehydration signs like dry mouth, low amounts of urine, and feeling dizzy when you stand
Vomiting so much that it's hard to stay hydrated
Many germs and illnesses can cause the typical symptoms of salmonella infection. To confirm you have it, your doctor will send a sample of your bowel movement to a lab. A technician then checks to see if salmonella is the culprit. If you are very ill, your doctor might ask you to take more tests to zero in on the exact type of salmonella bacteria.
If you're otherwise healthy, plenty of fluids and lots of rest are often all you need to make a full recovery within a week. But sometimes diarrhea is so bad you might need to go to the hospital for IV fluids and other treatment. You may need to call your doctor to rule out other problems if you have many symptoms and you're not sure that salmonella is the cause.
The Problem With Antibiotics
Even though salmonella is caused by bacteria, antibiotics don't help you recover more quickly unless your immune system -- your body's defense against germs -- is weak or the infection has entered your blood. In many cases, antibiotic treatment can lengthen the time you carry the bacteria, and raise your chances of getting sick from the same infection again.
Babies or young children are more likely to get serious health problems from salmonella. You also have greater chances of complications if you:
Have immune problems due to illness (like HIV)
Take drugs that curb your immune system
Have sickle cell disease
Take medication to manage stomach acid
Have spleen problems
In these cases, your doctor may suggest antibiotics to help prevent the most serious complications.
Avoid Getting Sick From Your Pets
Wash your hands after you play with animals to protect yourself and others from infection. Kids younger than 5 shouldn't touch animals likely to carry salmonella, like turtles, frogs, chickens, or lizards. No one should eat or drink around these animals or their living areas. Go outside if possible to clean your pet's food bowls, toys, and bedding, or carefully disinfect the indoor area. Take your pet to the vet for regular checkups.
Prevent an Infection From Food
Follow these tips to cut your odds of getting salmonella from food:
Don't serve undercooked eggs, meat, or poultry.
Keep uncooked meats away from food that is already prepared.
Thoroughly wash all kitchen surfaces, boards, knives, and other tools after use.
Store food promptly in the fridge or freezer within an hour or two, even if it's been freshly prepared.
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Mayo Clinic: "Salmonella Infection."
Medscape: "Salmonella Infection in Emergency Medicine Medication."
The Nemours Foundation: "Salmonella Infections."
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services: "Salmonella and Food."