Food Sources of Vitamins and Minerals

Medically Reviewed by Mahammad Juber, MD on November 29, 2022

Vitamin A

Food sources include: Cod-liver oil, milk, eggs, sweet potatoes, carrots, leafy vegetables, and fortified foods such as breakfast cereals

What it does: Promotes good eyesight and normal functioning of the immune system.


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Food sources include: Beans and enriched, fortified, or whole-grain products such as bread, pasta, and cereals

What it does: Helps the body process carbohydrates and some protein.


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Food sources include: Milk, breads, fortified cereals, almonds, asparagus, dark meat chicken, and cooked beef

What it does: Supports many body processes, such as turning food into energy. It also helps your body make red blood cells.


Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Food sources include: Poultry, fish, meat, whole grains, and fortified cereals

What it does: Helps with digestion and changing food into energy; helps make cholesterol.


Vitamin B6

Food sources include: Fortified cereals, fortified soy-based meat substitutes, baked potatoes with skin, bananas, light-meat chicken and turkey, eggs, peas, and spinach

What it does: Supports your nervous system. Helps the body break down proteins. Helps the body break down stored sugar.


Vitamin B12

Food sources include: Beef, clams, mussels, crabs, salmon, poultry, and fortified foods

What it does: Helps with cell division and helps make red blood cells.


Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Food sources include: Citrus fruits, berries, tomatoes, potatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, red and green bell peppers, cabbage, and spinach

What it does: Promotes a healthy immune system and helps make collagen. It's also needed to make certain chemical messengers in the brain.


Vitamin D

Food sources include: Fortified milk, cheese, and cereals; egg yolks; salmon, cod liver oil

What it does: Maintains bone health and helps the body process calcium; important for immune system function; may protect from cancer.


Vitamin E

Food sources include: Leafy green vegetables, almonds, hazelnuts, and vegetable oils like sunflower, canola, and soybean

What it does: As an antioxidant, it helps protect cells from damage.


Folate (Folic Acid)

Food sources include: Fortified cereals and grain products; lima, lentil, kidney, and garbanzo beans; and dark leafy vegetables

What it does: Promotes cell development, prevents birth defects, promotes heart health, and helps red blood cells form.


Vitamin K

Food sources include: Leafy green vegetables like parsley, chard, and kale; broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage; and fruits such as avocado. kiwi, and grapes

What it does: Helps blood clot and maintains bone health.



Food sources include: Dairy products, broccoli, dark leafy greens like spinach and rhubarb, and fortified products, such as orange juice, soy milk, and tofu

What it does: Helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth. Helps muscles work. Supports cell communication.



Food sources include: Some cereals, beef, turkey, fish, broccoli, and grape juice

What it does: Helps maintain normal blood sugar (glucose) levels.



Food sources include: Organ meats (like liver), seafood, cashews, sunflower seeds, wheat bran cereals, whole-grain products, avocados, and cocoa products

What it does: Helps break down iron, helps make red blood cells, and helps produce energy for cells. It also helps maintain bones, connective tissue, and blood vessels.



Food sources include: Fluoridated water, teas, and some fish

What it does: Prevents dental cavities and stimulates new bone formation.



Food sources include: Iodized salt, some seafood, kelp, and seaweed

What it does: Works to make thyroid hormones.



Food sources include: Leafy green vegetables, beans, shellfish, red meat, eggs, poultry, soy foods, and some fortified foods

What it does: Carries oxygen to all parts of the body through red blood cells.



Food sources include: Whole grains, leafy green vegetables, almonds, Brazil nuts, soybeans, halibut, peanuts, hazelnuts, lima beans, black-eyed peas, avocados, bananas,

What it does: Helps muscles and nerves work, steadies heart rhythm, maintains bone strength, and helps the body create energy.



Food sources include: Milk, eggs, cereal, date palm, corn flour, carob flour, scallops, mussels, and leafy and non-leafy vegetables, pecans, almonds, green and black tea, whole grains, and pineapple juice

What it does: Supports bone formation and wound healing, and also helps break down proteins, cholesterol, and carbohydrates. It’s also an antioxidant.



Food sources include: Legumes, grain products, and nuts

What it does: Helps process proteins and other substances.



Food sources include: Dairy products, beef, chicken, halibut, salmon, eggs, and whole wheat breads

What it does: Helps cells work, helps the body make energy, helps red blood cells deliver oxygen, and helps make bone.



Food sources include: Broccoli, potatoes with the skin, prune juice, orange juice, leafy green vegetables, bananas, raisins, and tomatoes

What it does: Helps the nervous system and muscles; helps maintain a healthy balance of water.



Food sources include: Organ meats (like liver), shrimp, crabs, salmon, halibut, and Brazil nuts

What it does: Helps protect cells from damage and regulates thyroid hormone.



Food sources include: Red meat, fortified cereals, oysters, almonds, peanuts, chickpeas, soy foods, and dairy products

What it does: Supports immune function, as well as the reproductive and nervous systems.

Show Sources


Institute of Medicine.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Information Center.

Harvard School of Public Health.

Nemours Foundation.

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