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American Family Physician: "Diagnostic Approach to Palpitations."
American Heart Association: "Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease."
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy: "Nicotine and sympathetic neurotransmission."
Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition: "Chapter 10: Palpitations."
Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience: "Nicotine withdrawal."
Harvard Medical School: "Caffeine unlikely to trigger palpitations in healthy people."
Johns Hopkins Medicine: "When to Evaluate Heart Palpitations."
Journal of the American Heart Association: "Consumption of caffeinated products and cardiac ectopy."
Mayo Clinic: "Heart arrhythmia: Symptoms and causes," "Heart Palpitations: Definition," "Heart Palpitations: Symptoms," "Heart Palpitations: Tests and Diagnosis," "Heart Palpitations: Treatments and Drugs," "Hypoglycemia: Symptoms."
Michigan Medicine: "Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)."
NHS: "Heart palpitations and ectopic beats."
NHLBI Health Topics: "Heart Palpitations."
National Institute on Drug Abuse: "What Is MDMA?"
National Institute of Mental Health: "Panic Disorder: When Fear Overwhelms."
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: "The acute effects of daily nicotine intake on heart rate--A toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic modeling study."
Robert, G. Synopsis of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 2002.
Thyroid Foundation of Canada: "The Heart and the Thyroid Gland."
University of California San Francisco: "Blood Sugar & Stress."
UpToDate: “Epidemiology of and risk factors for atrial fibrillation.”
Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on September 22, 2017
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