When you have peripheral artery disease (PAD), plaque builds up in your arteries, the vessels that carry blood from your heart. Plaque is a mix of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other things. The buildup most often happens in your legs, but you can also have blockages in the arteries that go to your arms, head, stomach, and kidneys.
The main treatments for PAD are lifestyle changes, medicine, and surgery.
PAD Lifestyle Changes
With different choices in your day-to-day life, you can do a lot to make sure your PAD doesn’t get any worse. You may even be able to reverse the symptoms and avoid surgery if you:
- Quit smoking.
- Get more exercise.
- Eat a healthy diet.
- Take care of your feet.
- Manage your other health problems, such as diabetes and high blood pressure.
It’s best to skip compression socks. They don’t help with PAD and can actually cause more harm. If you already wear them to prevent swelling or blood clots, check with your doctor to see whether they’re still a good idea.
If you need help quitting, talk to your doctor to find a program that’s right for you.
Your doctor knows that it isn’t easy to move around when you have this condition. They can help you ease into a routine and work up to the amount of activity you need. You may have to start slow and take breaks, but you’ll probably take longer walks much sooner than you’d expect.
Your doctor may also offer you a medicine that helps get more blood to your legs and lowers your pain. This might make exercise easier.
It’s more important than ever to keep your weight and cholesterol under control. For a better diet that still has plenty of tasty foods:
- Eat fewer foods with saturated fat or cholesterol. That means less beef, pork, poultry with skin, and dairy from whole or 2% milk.
- Have plenty of fruits, vegetables, beans, lean meats, and plant oils such as olive oil (but avoid coconut oil or palm oil).
- Stay away from trans fats. If a food label has partially hydrogenated oils, put it back on the shelf.
- Take in less salt, sugar, and alcohol.
PAD foot care
Your feet may not heal as well as usual when they get hurt. Even a small cut can lead to bigger problems.
To take care of them, you can:
Check the tops, bottoms, and between your toes every day. Look for even minor problems such as scratches, blisters, small cuts, or ingrown nails. If you see anything, let your doctor know about it. If you can’t see your feet, use a mirror or ask a family member to help.
Use lotion or cream to keep your feet from getting dry. You can do this as often as you need to throughout the day. Don’t put lotion between your toes or on sores or cuts.
Keep your toenails trimmed. It can help to clip your toenails after bathing. They’ll be softer then. You may also want to use a nail file.
Manage other health problems
High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes can all make PAD worse if you don’t stay on top of them.
Work with your doctor to keep an eye on these problems.
In some cases, lifestyle changes aren’t enough. You might need medicine to:
- Lower your chance of heart attack or stroke, such as with aspirin or clopidogrel (Plavix)
- Prevent blood clots, such as with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)
- Get more blood flow to your legs and feet, such as with cilostazol (Pletal) or pentoxifylline (Pentoxil, Trental). These drugs help keep your blood thin and widen blood vessels.
- Lower your blood pressure, such as with ramipril (Altace)
- Lower your cholesterol with statins (Crestor, Lipitor, Zocor).
Usually, lifestyle changes and medicine are all you need. But if you have a more severe case, you may need to have a procedure such as:
- Angioplasty to widen the blocked artery and let more blood flow. Your doctor might place a small mesh tube called a stent in there to help keep it open.
- Atherectomy to remove plaque buildup
- Bypass surgery to give blood a different path around a blocked artery
- Thrombolytic therapy to inject a drug into your artery to get rid of a clot
PAD can be serious, but it’s also treatable. Your doctor can help you understand which options are best for you.