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University of Alberta: “Too much sodium may rob body of calcium.”
CDC: “Sodium: the facts,” “Assessing Your Weight,” “Important Facts about Falls.”
Health.gov: “Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020.”
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: “Exercise and Bone Health,” “Bone Health Basics.”
Womenshealth.gov: “Minority Women’s Healthy: Osteoporosis.”
National Osteoporosis Foundation: “Food and Your Bones.”
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: “Women and Drinking.”
National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements: “Calcium”
Stevenson, L. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, published online June 20, 2012.
Smokefree.gov: “18 Ways Smoking Affects Your Health.”
National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases
National Resource Center: “Smoking and Bone Health,” “Handout on Health: Osteoporosis,” “The Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis and What It Means to You,” “Osteoporosis Overview.”
American College of Rheumatology: “Osteoporosis.”
Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson, MD on February 17, 2020
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