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American Psychological Association: “The case against spanking.”
Gershoff, E. Child Development Perspectives, July 2013.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. Pediatrics, April 1998.
Emory University School of Medicine: “Alternatives to Physical Punishment.”
ChildrensMD.org: “Beyond time-outs: No-yell, no-spank discipline.”
Virginia Cooperative Extension (Virginia Tech, Virginia State University): “Discipline for Young Children - To Prevent Misbehavior.”
Crary, E. Without Spanking or Spoiling: A Practical Approach to Toddler and Preschool Guidance, Parenting Press Inc., 1993.
National Association of School Psychologists: “Spanking: Alternative Discipline Strategies.”
North Carolina Division of Social Services, North Carolina Family and Children’s Resource Program (fosteringperspectives.org): “Parenting Without Spanking.”
Prevent Child Abuse America: “Spanking: When we know more, we can do better.”
University of Minnesota Extension: “Controlling Your Own Anger.”
University of Rochester Medical Center: “Anger Management: Strategies for Parents and Grandparents.”
Mental Health America of Wisconsin: “Effective Discipline Techniques for Parents: Alternatives to Spanking.”
Stanford University: “Teacher empathy reduces student suspensions, Stanford research shows.”
University of Rochester Medical Center: “How to Discipline Your Child With Love.”
Reid, JB. Development and Psychopathology, January 1993.
Reviewed by Renee A. Alli, MD on December 20, 2020
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