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National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health: "Evening Primrose Oil."
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: "Gamma linolenic acid: an antiinflammatory omega-6 fatty acid."
Journal of Nutrition: "Importance of Dietary γ-Linolenic Acid in Human Health and Nutrition."
Mayo Clinic: "Atopic dermatitis (eczema)," "Diabetic neuropathy," "Evening primrose."
Cochrane: "Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema."
Journal of Dermatological Treatment: "Topical evening primrose oil as treatment for atopic eczema."
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism: "Treatment of diabetes mellitus-associated neuropathy with vitamin E and Eve primrose."
International Journal of Cosmetic Science: "Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults."
Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology: "Herbs, Vitamins and Minerals in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Systematic Review."
Breast: "Evidence-based management of Mastalgia: a meta-analysis of randomised trials."
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology: "Complementary/alternative therapies for premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials."
Journal of Child Neurology: "Combined ω3 and ω6 supplementation in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) refractory to methylphenidate treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study."
Harvard Health Publishing: "Perimenopause: Rocky road to menopause."
BMJ: "Effect of oral gamolenic acid from evening primrose oil on menopausal flushing."
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics: "The effect of oral evening primrose oil on menopausal hot flashes: a randomized clinical trial."
British Journal of Nutrition: "Lack of effect of supplementation with essential fatty acids on bone mineral density in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: two randomized controlled trials of Efacal v. calcium alone."
Aging (Milano): "Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis.
American Family Physician: "Evening Primrose Oil."
Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, DO, MS on July 06, 2018
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