Alpha hydroxy acids are most commonly used for skin conditions such as dry skin, aging skin, or acne.
Not all cosmetics that contain alpha hydroxy acid have the concentration information on the label. For safety's sake, it's best to use products that identify the concentration of active ingredients.
How does it work ?
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Likely Effective for
Possibly Effective for
- Acne. Applying creams, peels, or lotions containing alpha hydroxy acids reduces signs of acne in teens and adults.
- Acne scars. Applying alpha hydroxy acid to the skin in a facial peel or lotion seems to improve the appearance of acne scars.
- Dry mouth. Using a mouth spray containing a specific alpha hydroxy acid, malic acid, seems to improve symptoms of dry mouth caused by certain medicines.
- Fibromyalgia. Taking a specific alpha hydroxy acid, called malic acid, in combination with magnesium seems to reduce pain and tenderness caused by fibromyalgia.
- Dark skin patches on the face (melasma). Applying 10% glycolic acid as a lotion for 2 weeks followed by a facial peeling program using 50% glycolic acid every month for 3 consecutive months seems to reduce unwanted skin coloration in people with two of the three types of melasma, epidermal-type and mixed-type melasma. However, glycolic acid facial peels don't seem to work for the third type of melasma, dermal-type melasma. Applying a peel containing 30% glycolic acid as part of a program also involving laser treatment appears to be better than just the laser treatment for reducing the unwanted skin coloration of mixed-type melasma.
When applied to the skin: It is LIKELY SAFE to apply glycolic acid or lactic acid to the skin. When applied to the face, the concentration should be no higher than 10%. When applied to other parts of the body, lactic acid can be used in concentrations of up to 15%. Facial peels, lotions, and creams with a higher concentration should only be used under the supervision of a dermatologist.
In some people, alpha hydroxy acids can make the skin extra sensitive to sunlight. Be sure to use a sunscreen while using alpha hydroxy acid products. Alpha hydroxy acids can also cause mild skin irritation, redness, swelling, itching, and skin discoloration. Facial peels left on the skin for periods longer than recommended can cause severe burns to the skin.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Sensitive skin: Alpha hydroxy acids can worsen skin conditions by causing skin irritation and removal of the top layer of skin cells.
We currently have no information for ALPHA HYDROXY ACIDS (AHAs) overview.
- For fibromyalgia: Specific tablets containing 1200 mg malic acid plus 300 mg of magnesium hydroxide (Super Malic tablets) have been taken twice daily for 6 months.
- For dry mouth: A mouth spray containing 1% malic acid, a specific alpha hydroxy acid, has been used as needed.
- For aging skin: Creams, solutions, or lotions, containing the alpha hydroxy acids lactic acid, citric acid, mandelic acid, or glycolic acid in concentrations up to 25% are used, usually twice daily. Peels containing 70% glycolic acid or 85% lactic acid have also been used, usually every 2-4 weeks.
- For dry skin: Creams or lotions containing lactic acid or lactate 4% to 15% or ammonium lactate 12% have been applied up to twice daily for 2-4 weeks.
- For acne: Solutions or creams containing 14% gluconolactone or 10% glycolic acid have been used. Creams containing alpha hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid, malic acid, or citric acid, have been used in combination with other ingredients. A peel containing 40% glycolic acid has been used in 2 week intervals.
- For acne scars: Glycolic acid (GA) facial peels are used. Peels containing 20% to 70% glycolic acid have been applied every two or six weeks. Peels are applied for up to 4-5 minutes. Completing the series at least 5-6 times is usually needed before skin looks better. Sometimes a 35% or 70% glycolic acid cream is used along with a treatment called microneedling.
- For dark skin patches on the face (melasma): A 10% lotion of the glycolic acid (GA) is applied with a sunscreen to facial skin nightly for 2 weeks. Then a peeling program is done monthly for 3 months in a row. The peeling program features a 50% GA peel applied three times to the face and left on for a period of 2-5 minutes each time (first peel 2 minutes, second peel 4 minutes, and third peel 5 minutes). A peel containing 30% glycolic acid has been used every week in combination with laser treatment.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For acne: Solutions or creams containing 14% gluconolactone or 10% glycolic acid have been used. Creams containing alpha hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid and malic acid, have been used in combination with other ingredients.
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