APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

OTHER NAME(S):

Cider Vinegar, Malus sylvestris, Vinagre de Manzana, Vinagre de Sidra de Manzana, Vinaigre de Cidre.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Apple cider vinegar is fermented juice from crushed apples. Like apple juice, apple cider vinegar may contain various vitamins and minerals, as well as dietary fiber. Apple cider vinegar may also contain acetic acid and citric acid. But it can be hard to know exactly what's in some apple cider vinegar products. In the U.S., there's no real definition of what a product must contain to be called apple cider vinegar. For this reason, the amount of each component of apple cider vinegar may vary from product to product.

Apple cider vinegar is used for obesity, diabetes, problems related to hair and skin, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

In foods, apple cider vinegar is used as a flavoring agent.

How does it work?

Apple cider vinegar is the fermented juice of crushed apples. It contains acetic acid and nutrients such as B vitamins and vitamin C. Apple cider vinegar might help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes by changing how foods get absorbed from the gut. Apple cider vinegar might prevent the breakdown of some foods.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Diabetes. Early research shows that taking apple cider vinegar with a meal improves insulin sensitivity and insulin levels after the meal in people with insulin resistance. But it doesn't seem to have a significant benefit in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Delayed emptying of food from the stomach into the intestines (gastroparesis). Early research shows that taking apple cider vinegar worsens gastric emptying rate in people with type 1 diabetes and slow digestion.
  • Obesity. Early research shows that taking apple cider vinegar along with a reduced-calorie diet may slightly decrease body weight, body mass index (BMI), and appetite compared to dieting alone in overweight adults.
  • Osteoarthritis.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Infection of the intestines by parasites.
  • Leg cramps.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the nasal cavity and sinuses (rhinosinusitis).
  • Sore throat (pharyngitis).
  • Indigestion (dyspepsia).
  • Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis).
  • Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function).
  • Kidney stones.
  • Aging.
  • Acne, when applied to the affected area.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis), when applied to the affected area.
  • Warts, when applied to the affected area.
  • Sunburn, when applied to the affected area.
  • Shingles (herpes zoster), when applied to the affected area.
  • Insect bites, when applied to the affected area.
  • Dandruff, when applied to the affected area.
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the vagina (vaginitis), when applied to the affected area.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate apple cider vinegar for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Consuming apple cider vinegar in food amounts is LIKELY SAFE. Apple cider vinegar is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used as a medicine, short-term. Apple cider vinegar is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large amounts, long-term. Consuming large amounts of apple cider vinegar long-term might lead to problems such as low levels of potassium.

When applied to the skin: Apple cider vinegar is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when applied to the skin. Applying apple cider vinegar to the skin has been reported to cause chemical burns even after one use.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if apple cider vinegar is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Diabetes: Apple cider vinegar might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use apple cider vinegar.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

    Large amounts of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels in the body. Low potassium levels can increase the side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).

  • Insulin interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

    Insulin might decrease potassium levels in the body. Large amounts of apple cider vinegar might also decrease potassium levels in the body. Taking apple cider vinegar along with insulin might cause potassium levels in the body to be too low. Avoid taking large amounts of apple cider vinegar if you take insulin.

  • Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

    Large amounts of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking apple cider vinegar along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.<br/><br/> Some "water pills" that can deplete potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Microzide), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of apple cider vinegar depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for apple cider vinegar. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Krueger, D. A. and Krueger, H. W. Isotopic composition of carbon in vinegars. J Assoc Off Anal.Chem. 1985;68(3):449-452. View abstract.
  • Lhotta, K., Hofle, G., Gasser, R., and Finkenstedt, G. Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar. Nephron 1998;80(2):242-243. View abstract.
  • Beheshti Z, Chan YH, Nia HS, et al. Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Sci J. 2012;9(4):2431-2440.
  • Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, et al. Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:242-7. View abstract.
  • Budak NH, Kumbul Doguc D, Savas CM, et al. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:6638-44. View abstract.
  • Bunick CG, Lott JP, Warren CB, et al. Chemical burn from topical apple cider vinegar. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;67(4):e143-4. View abstract.
  • Duke J. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus: Rodale Press, 1997
  • Feldstein S, Afshar M, Krakowski AC. Chemical Burn from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;8(6):50. View abstract.
  • Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, Barreto-Alcoba M. Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:1141-4. View abstract.
  • Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol 2007;7:46. View abstract.
  • Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:281-2. View abstract.
  • Khezri SS, Saidpour A, Hooseinzadeh N, Amiri Z. Beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar on weight management, visceral adiposity index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: a randomized clinical trial. J Functional Foods 2018;43:95-102.
  • Lhotta K, Hofle G, Gasser R, Finkenstedt G. Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia, and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar. Nephron 1998;80:242-3.
  • Liljeberg H, Björck I. Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:368-71. View abstract.
  • Luu LA, Flowers RH, Kellams AL, et al. Apple cider vinegar soaks [0.5%] as a treatment for atopic dermatitis do not improve skin barrier integrity. Pediatr Dermatol. 2019;36(5):634-639. View abstract.
  • Nutrition Search. Nutrition Almanac, Revised Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1979.
  • Shishehbor F, Mansoori A, Sarkaki AR, et al. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11:2634-8. View abstract.
  • Zeng G, Mai Z, Xia S, et al. Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study. BJU Int. 2017 Jul;120(1):109-116. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.