APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

OTHER NAME(S):

Cider Vinegar, Malus sylvestris, Vinagre de Manzana, Vinagre de Sidra de Manzana, Vinaigre de Cidre.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Apple cider vinegar is fermented juice from crushed apples. Like apple juice, it probably contains some pectin; vitamins B1, B2, and B6; biotin; folic acid; niacin; pantothenic acid; and vitamin C. It also contains small amounts of the minerals sodium, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, iron, and magnesium. Apple cider vinegar can also contain significant quantities of acetic acid and citric acid. It is used to make medicine.

Apple cider vinegar is used alone or with honey for weak bones (osteoporosis), weight loss, leg cramps and pain, upset stomach, sore throats, sinus problems, high blood pressure, arthritis, to help rid the body of toxins, stimulate thinking, slow the aging process, regulate blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, and fight infection.

Some people apply apple cider vinegar to the skin for acne, as a skin toner, to soothe sunburn, for shingles, insect bites, and to prevent dandruff. It is also used in the bath for vaginal infections.

In foods, apple cider vinegar is used as a flavoring agent.

It can be hard to know what’s in some apple cider vinegar products. Laboratory analysis of commercially available apple cider vinegar tablets shows wide variation in what they contain. Amounts of acetic acid ranged from about 1% to 10.57%. Amounts of citric acid ranged from 0% to about 18.5%. Amounts of ingredients listed on the product labels didn’t match the laboratory findings. In the US, there is no real definition in the law of what apple cider vinegar must contain to be called apple cider vinegar. So, it is impossible to tell from these analyses whether these commercial products actually contain any apple cider vinegar.

How does it work?

Apple cider vinegar is the fermented juice of crushed apples. It contains acetic acid and nutrients such as B vitamins and vitamin C. Apple cider vinegar might help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes by changing how foods get absorbed from the gut. Apple cider vinegar might prevent the breakdown of some foods.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Diabetes. Some preliminary research suggests that consuming vinegar or apple cider vinegar might reduce blood sugar levels after a meal.
  • Slow digestion (gastroparesis).
  • Weight loss.
  • Leg cramps and pain.
  • Unsettled stomach.
  • Sore throats.
  • Sinus problems.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Arthritis.
  • Infection.
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis).
  • Lowering cholesterol.
  • Improving circulation.
  • Acne.
  • Sunburn.
  • Shingles.
  • Bites.
  • Dandruff.
  • Vaginal infections (vaginitis).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate apple cider vinegar for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Consuming apple cider vinegar in food amounts is LIKELY SAFE. Apple cider vinegar is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used short-term for medical purposes.

In some cases, consuming a lot of apple cider vinegar might not be safe. Consuming 8 ounces of apple cider vinegar per day, long-term might lead to problems such as low potassium. There has been one report of a person who developed low potassium levels and weak bones (osteoporosis) after taking 250 mL apple cider vinegar daily for 6 years. In another report, a woman who had an apple cider vinegar tablet lodged in her throat for 30 minutes developed tenderness and pain in her voice box and difficulty swallowing for 6 months following the incident. This was thought to be due to the acid content of the tablet.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the safety of using apple cider vinegar as medicine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side, and don’t use it.

Diabetes: Apple cider vinegar might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Therefore, blood sugar levels need to be monitored closely. Dose adjustments may be necessary for diabetes medications that are taken.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

    Large amounts of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels in the body. Low potassium levels can increase the side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).

  • Insulin interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

    Insulin might decrease potassium levels in the body. Large amounts of apple cider vinegar might also decrease potassium levels in the body. Taking apple cider vinegar along with insulin might cause potassium levels in the body to be too low. Avoid taking large amounts of apple cider vinegar if you take insulin.

  • Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

    Large amounts of apple cider vinegar can decrease potassium levels in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking apple cider vinegar along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.<br/><br/> Some "water pills" that can deplete potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Microzide), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of apple cider vinegar depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for apple cider vinegar. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Krueger, D. A. and Krueger, H. W. Isotopic composition of carbon in vinegars. J Assoc Off Anal.Chem. 1985;68(3):449-452. View abstract.
  • Lhotta, K., Hofle, G., Gasser, R., and Finkenstedt, G. Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar. Nephron 1998;80(2):242-243. View abstract.
  • Beheshti Z, Chan YH, Nia HS, et al. Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids. Life Sci J. 2012;9(4):2431-2440.
  • Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, et al. Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:242-7. View abstract.
  • Budak NH, Kumbul Doguc D, Savas CM, et al. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:6638-44. View abstract.
  • Bunick CG, Lott JP, Warren CB, et al. Chemical burn from topical apple cider vinegar. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;67(4):e143-4. View abstract.
  • Duke J. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus: Rodale Press, 1997
  • Feldstein S, Afshar M, Krakowski AC. Chemical Burn from Vinegar Following an Internet-based Protocol for Self-removal of Nevi. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015 Jun;8(6):50. View abstract.
  • Hill LL, Woodruff LH, Foote JC, Barreto-Alcoba M. Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:1141-4. View abstract.
  • Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol 2007;7:46. View abstract.
  • Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:281-2. View abstract.
  • Lhotta K, Hofle G, Gasser R, Finkenstedt G. Hypokalemia, hyperreninemia, and osteoporosis in a patient ingesting large amounts of cider vinegar. Nephron 1998;80:242-3.
  • Liljeberg H, Björck I. Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:368-71. View abstract.
  • Nutrition Search. Nutrition Almanac, Revised Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1979.
  • Shishehbor F, Mansoori A, Sarkaki AR, et al. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11:2634-8. View abstract.

More Resources for APPLE CIDER VINEGAR

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.